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Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of Animal Industry"

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Public Document 



No. 98 



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ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1920 



Department of Conservation 




BOSTON f I 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 
32 DERNE STREET 



Public Document 



No. 98 



Stye ^ommomBtaltt) oi MazsattyxiBttte 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1920 



Department of Conservation 



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BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



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DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 



Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Nov. 30, 1920. 

To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

By the provisions of chapter 350, General Acts of 1919, the 
Department of Animal Industry, organized and existing under 
authority of chapter 608, Acts of 1912, was placed in the De- 
partment of Conservation to serve therein as the Division of 
Animal Industry. This act went into effect Dec. 1, 1919, and 
I have the honor to present the following report of the work 
of this Division for the year ending Nov. 30, 1920. 

The functions of the Division of Animal Industry and the 
duties of its officials may be described as follows: Inspection 
and examination of horses, cattle, sheep and swine within the 
Commonwealth, and of the conditions under which they are 
kept; the execution of measures in prevention, control or cure 
of contagious disease among them; the slaughter when neces- 
sary of such as are affected with, or which have been exposed 
to, contagious disease, followed by the burial or other disposal 
of their carcasses; the cleansing and disinfection of districts, 
buildings or places where contagion exists or has existed. An- 
other duty under the law is the regulation of the shipment of 
horses, cattle, sheep and swine from other States to Massa- 
chusetts, in order that the prevalence of contagious disease 
may not be further increased by diseased animals from other 
communities. This regulation necessitates the mallein testing 
of many horses, and the tuberculin testing of all cattle over 
six months of age that are not intended for immediate slaugh- 
ter or are not accompanied by a satisfactory record of test 
made by a veterinarian approved by the live-stock official of 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

the State from which they are shipped, and by officials of the 
United States Bureau of Animal Industry. 

Successful dairying, as the production of milk, butter and 
cheese, the conservation of all kinds of animal food used for 
human consumption as meat, the commercial business of prop- 
agating, feeding and marketing cattle, sheep and swine, and 
of their by-products, such as leather, wool, fats, fertilizers, 
and many other articles of commerce, all depend in great de- 
gree upon the maintenance of health of those species. Preser- 
vation of the health of the people is also dependent in no small 
degree upon it, as is also fertilization of the soil necessary to 
successful agriculture. 

Healthy live stock being recognized as so indispensable to 
all of these projects, the prevention, control and eradication of 
contagious disease among animals is an important public 
work, far-reaching in its influences, and affecting more or less 
directly the welfare and material prosperity of all the people. 

The work of this Division directly in preservation of the 
public health lies in the suppression of such animal diseases 
as are communicable to the human subject, namely, glanders, 
bovine tuberculosis, rabies, anthrax, actinomycosis, etc. Some 
of these diseases are rapidly fatal to the human subject, and 
their transmission readily occurs if circumstances are favorable 
for it. It is very important, therefore, that this class of dis- 
eases be prevented, controlled or, if possible, eradicated from 
the animal kingdom. 

Fertility of the soil is so dependent upon the keeping of live 
stock that the ratio of general crop production to the number 
of animals produced, raised and maintained upon our farms 
is an intimate one. Numbers are largely increased if contagious 
disease is effectively controlled; therefore, the intimate relation 
that effective work of this Division bears to successful agricul- 
ture may be readily seen. 

There is no question as to the greater economy of raising 
and maintaining only such live stock as can be kept free from 
contagious disease, for the reason that healthy animals return 
to their owners a far greater revenue on the investment of time, 
labor and capital than do those among which disease prevails 
in any form or in any degree of intensity. 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

Each succeeding year there is an increased dependence of the 
public for food material upon domestic animals, as represented 
not only by dairy products but by meat value of the carcasses 
of cattle, sheep and swine. That these carcasses may be found 
fit for human food, it is necessary that the animals shall have 
been raised under proper sanitary conditions, and maintained 
free of contagious disease up to the time of slaughter. The 
carcasses of thousands of animals are yearly condemned on 
account of lesions of contagious disease being found at time 
of slaughter. It is an economic necessity of the State and 
Nation that this great waste be reduced to a lower point than 
has yet been reached. Although progress in this direction is 
yearly increasing through the active co-operation of Federal, 
State and municipal authorities, the Division of Animal In- 
dustry recognizes that its work of elimination of animal diseases 
has a broad field for expansion, and that its duty in relation 
to increased food supply for the people is well defined. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 189, General 
Acts of 1918, this report will consist of a brief summary of the 
year's work of this Division, illustrated by charts showing the 
control work of recent years of some of the principal contagious 
diseases of animals. These charts will probably be of con- 
siderable interest to those who have been familiar with the 
workings of our organization during a period of years. They 
show the number of cases we have had to deal with, and the 
working out of policies that have been pursued, with such 
occasional variations as seemed advisable, for a considerable 
length of time. 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Division 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1920: — 

Cattle. 

15,546 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by Division agents. 

1,924 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veteri- 
narians. 

2,855 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 

9,736 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test 
records viseed. 

5,247 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other 
points. 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

989 animals on 143 farms in 47 towns were given preventive treatment 

against blackleg. 
263 animals on 12 farms in 6 towns were given preventive treatment 

against anthrax. 
43 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic 

septicemia. 
968 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses. 

530 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 
4,063 interstate horses were examined by Division veterinarians. 
23 tests of whole stables were made by Division veterinarians. 
11 animals were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 

Dogs. 
623 cases of possible, rabies in dogs were investigated. 

Sheep and Goats. 

38 sheep were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 
85 goats were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Swine. 

51,505 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 
15,965 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

685 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division 
veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 

The control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis in Massa- 
chusetts has for many years been a problem for serious con- 
sideration. Cattle owners, whether engaged in dairying alone, 
the production and marketing of animals for food purposes, or 
the propagation and sale of pure-bred animals as foundation 
stock, are all pecuniarily affected by the ravages of this dis- 
ease, and suffer serious loss in consequence of its continued 
prevalence. 

The dire significance of its possible transmissibility to the 
human subject may also be referred to as an additional reason 
for a continuous study of any and all methods of control that 
promise any degree of success. 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

The records of the Federal meat inspection service at the 
many different points in the country furnish the best indica- 
tion of the prevalence of this disease, the control of which is 
a nation-wide problem and in no sense a local one. In the 
country as a whole, thousands of animal carcasses and parts 
of carcasses are annually condemned at time of slaughter on 
account of the lesions of this disease being extensive enough 
to render the meat unfit for human food. While accurate 
statistics of the number of carcasses of Massachusetts cattle 
so condemned are not available as a separate unit, no doubt 
they are of practically the same significance as are those of 
the country as a whole. 

While the number of carcasses condemned at Federal-in- 
spected abattoirs on account of this disease has gradually in- 
creased from year to year until recently, it is gratifying to 
know that for the past three years the number so condemned 
has shown a considerable decrease. This decrease has been 
largely due to the more active control work inaugurated by 
State authorities, and the active movement inaugurated in 
1917 by the Federal government looking to eradication as a 
possibility in the course of time. These activities have been 
stimulated and seconded by the live-stock industry of the 
country, all branches of which finally realize the great economic 
losses caused by tuberculosis of live stock, and the alarming 
significance of its steady increase from year to year. 

In Massachusetts for thirty years its regulatory live-stock 
officials have been engaged in carrying out such measures in 
the control of bovine tuberculosis as seemed to promise relief 
to such conditions of its prevalence as from time to time arose 
or were apparent. These measures have resulted in more or 
less success as far as limiting the spread of the disease is con- 
cerned. It has been felt, however, that its eradication or com- 
plete control, if ever such can be accomplished, will be brought 
about by nothing less than a nation-wide movement to that 
end, instituted by Federal authorities co-operating with State 
officials, and both organizations supported by the live-stock 
industry in all its branches, and by an aroused public senti- 
ment on the subject of animal food from healthy animals only. 

The general policy which has been pursued by the Division 



8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

in this work for the past three years is still in operation. 
This policy briefly stated is as follows: Tuberculin testing of 
all cattle arriving in Massachusetts from other States not ac- 
companied by approved records of test, followed by slaughter 
of the reacting animals; annual examination by local inspectors 
of animals of all Massachusetts cattle and the premises on 
which they are kept, with a detailed report as to the health 
of the animals and the sanitary condition of the premises; 
quarantine of all animals suspected of being diseased, followed 
by an examination by a Division inspector not only of the 
suspected animal but of all other members of the herd in 
which it is found, with the slaughter of such as are found 
diseased; disinfection of the premises where diseased animals 
are found and a "follow-up" examination of the herd three 
months later; the same process of disinfection and re-exam- 
ination of herd again carried out if additional cases are found; 
tuberculin testing of herds at request of the owners, under an 
agreement as to the disposal of the reacting animals. 

In our opinion the present Massachusetts plan of searching 
out and disposing of clinical cases of tuberculosis, thereby re- 
moving the most active spreaders of the disease, is one of the 
most effective methods by which progress in its actual control 
is accomplished. The diagnostic value of the tuberculin test, 
carefully applied by competent men, is very generally recog- 
nized; it should be taken advantage of at every opportunity 
for the purpose of disclosing the non-clinical cases. Although 
not infallible even in the hands of most competent and careful 
veterinarians, satisfactory control of the prevalence of tubercu- 
losis among our neat cattle is not possible without its aid. 

The Division is giving its support to the Federal movement 
in eradication of bovine tuberculosis, and co-operating with 
national authorities in this work to the fullest extent possible 
under existing law. 

The most prominent feature of the Federal movement is the 
"tuberculosis-free accredited herd" plan, upon which plan the 
movement largely depends for its indorsement by the cattle-own- 
ing public. Under this plan certain indemnity is paid for reacting 
cattle which are slaughtered, the owners of which have submitted 
their herds for official tests applied under Federal and State 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 

supervision. This payment of indemnity, however, is contingent 
upon a like indemnity being paid by the State wherein the 
cattle are owned. Under existing Massachusetts law, indemnity 
can be paid by the Commonwealth only for cattle which are 
condemned by Division officials, such condemnation to occur 
as a result of physical examination, the use of tuberculin as a 
diagnostic agent being in most cases prohibited. As the ma- 
jority of cattle reacting to a tuberculin test are not cases that 
can be readily condemned by physical examination, indemnity 
for such reactors cannot be paid by the State, and for that 
reason alone no Federal indemnity is available. The Massa- 
chusetts cattle owner, therefore, who desires to eradicate tuber- 
culosis from his herd by slaughter of the reactors to an official 
test, finds himself denied both State and Federal indemnity 
as partial reimbursement for his losses, and consequently the 
work of eradication by the " tuberculosis-free accredited herd" 
plan has not progressed in this State to the extent it has in 
most other States of the Union, or to the extent it would if 
our laws were more favorable to its progress. 

Believing that advantage should be taken of every factor 
which promises to be of any assistance in the eradication of 
this great scourge of live stock, the undersigned, as a member 
of a commission created by the Legislature of 1920 to study 
the situation regarding the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis 
in Massachusetts, will favor a recommendation for legislation 
providing for such amendment to our laws as will permit the 
payment of indemnity, under proper regulation, to owners of 
cattle whose animals are destroyed on account of having re- 
acted to tuberculin tests applied under official supervision. 

Such legislation will presume, for its proper execution, the 
expenditure of a considerable amount of money on the part of 
the Commonwealth. However, considering that such expendi- 
ture commands the award of an indemnity by the national 
government, and that the combined indemnities will be a 
great inducement to cattle owners to submit their herds for 
test, the ultimate effect will probably be to so reduce the prev- 
alence of the disease in this State that the large annual ap- 
propriations to this Division now necessary for its control will 
be very much reduced, and ultimately by an amount large 



10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

enough to more than offset any appropriations for the execu- 
tion of a law such as recommended. 

Chapter 470, Acts of 1920, entitled "An Act relative to the 
Indemnity to be paid for Animals because afflicted with Tu- 
berculosis," went into effect Aug. 18, 1920. By the provisions 
of this act, which is amendatory to section 6 of chapter 90 of 
the Revised Laws, the maximum amount which the Common- 
wealth may pay for a tuberculous animal is raised from $40 
to $60. The immediate effect of this act has been to largely 
increase the number of cattle reported to this Division as sus- 
pected of being affected with tuberculosis. Under the former 
maximum payment of $40 it was often to the pecuniary ad- 
vantage of an owner to send a suspected animal to slaughter 
without official condemnation, the salvage, in case the carcass 
was passed as fit for food, being greater than the maximum 
award by the State. We find now, however, that in many 
cases the situation is reversed, and, under the amended law, 
the money returns to the owner from the Commonwealth are 
greater than they would be from direct slaughter without 
official condemnation. The record of positive cases of bovine 
tuberculosis taken care of by this Division will for this reason 
show a very large increase in numbers this year. We do not 
believe that this indicates an increased prevalence of the dis- 
ease, but rather that the amended law and the increasing 
popularity of the tuberculin test operate to bring more cases 
to our attention for disposal. We feel that we can in conse- 
quence more correctly estimate actual existing conditions of 
prevalence of this disease than was formerly possible. 

Following is a chart showing for a period of nineteen years 
the number of cases reported to this Division and the number 
actually found diseased as proved by post-mortem examina- 
tion, with marginal notes stating the methods of disposal. 

This year's tabulation, as shown in the opposite chart, prob- 
ably more nearly approaches a correct record of the prevalence 
of tuberculosis in our herds than that of any other one year. 
In addition to a diligent search for clinical cases as formerly, 
and the bringing to our attention of many more cases by the 
operation of the amended law increasing the indemnity payable 
by the Commonwealth, the tuberculin test reactors appear this 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



11 




12 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



year as a greater factor than ever before in our statistics, con- 
stituting a much larger portion of the total number of animals 
killed. 

Comparing the last three years' records, we find the per- 
centage of reactors' to total number killed, as follows: 1918, 
23.5 per cent; 1919, 28.1 per cent; 1920, 33.4 per cent. In 
other words, one-third of all the tuberculous cattle killed under 
our supervision this year were reactors to a tuberculin test and 
killed for that reason. Practically none of these cases could 
have been detected by physical examination. 

Following are various tables showing the extent of the work 
of the Division in connection with the control of bovine tu- 
berculosis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 
1920: — 

Massachusetts Cattle. 

Cattle reported as diseased in 1919 disposed of in 1920, . 33 

Cattle reported as diseased during the year, . . . 2,069 

■ 2,102 

Disposal of Above Animals. 





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Reported by inspectors, owners, etc., 
Reacted to Division tests, . 
Reacted to private tests, .... 
Reacted to United States tests, . 


1,070 

8 


10 


65 
245 

272 
46 


30 

14 

12 

4 


74 


228 


17 

7 


1,494 

259 

299 

50 


Totals 


1,078 


10 


628 


60 


74 


228 


24 


2,102 



The above table shows the disposal of Massachusetts cattle sus- 
pected of tuberculosis and reported from all different sources. 

Following is a tabulation of tuberculin tests only, made by 
Division inspectors and reported by private veterinarians, 
showing also the disposal of such reactors as came under the 
jurisdiction of the Division and such as could be arranged for 
by consultation with owners: — 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 



Department Tests. 

Premises on which tests were made, ....... 37 

Number of animals tested, 1,924 

Number of reactors, 496 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Killed, lesions found, 203 

Killed, no lesions found, 10 

Killed by owner, no killing order issued, 3 

Awaiting action, 280 

Note. — In addition to above, 46 animals which reacted in 1919 were 
killed, in 4 of which no lesions were found. 

Tests reported by Private Veterinarians. 

Number of herds in which animals were reported, . . . . 153 

Number of animals tested, . . . 3,631 

Number of reactors, 758 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Slaughtered by owner, no record of post-mortem findings , . . 136 

Condemned on physical examination, 8 

Killed, lesions found, 247 

Killed, no lesions found, 12 

Showing no physical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of dis- 
posal, 315 

Awaiting action, 40 

Note. — In addition, 25 animals reacting to test made in 1919 were 
killed and lesions found. 

During the year Division inspectors physically examined 
1,310 herds of Massachusetts cattle comprising 15,546 head, 
of which number 1,380 were killed and found diseased. 

Interstate Cattle. 

In accordance with present regulations of the Federal govern- 
ment, all dairy or breeding cattle shipped interstate, if over six 
months of age, must have passed a tuberculin test applied by 
veterinarians approved by the live-stock officials of the State 
where tested and by the chief of the Bureau of Animal In- 
dustry, United States Department of Agriculture. 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

A modification of this regulation has, however, been made 
applicable to cattle shipped to so-called "public stockyards' ' 
which are under the supervision of Bureau officials and where 
the animals can be tested upon arrival. On July 1, 1919, the 
Brighton cattle market was designated as "public stockyards/' 
and such of the dairy or breeding cattle in the weekly ship- 
ments to that point as have not been tested before shipment 
are tested by inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry and 
of this Division working in co-operation. Check tests are also 
made from time to time on interstate cattle supposed to have 
been properly tested before shipment, in order that the quality 
of this work done in other States may be determined. 

Additional quarantine stations for receipt of animals for 
Brighton market are maintained at Watertown and Somer- 
ville, at which points many of the cattle destined for that 
market are unloaded. The protection of Massachusetts cattle 
interests at these points is carefully attended to by our force 
of inspectors, and we feel sure that no cattle which can be 
suspected of tuberculosis are released for any purpose except 
for immediate slaughter. 

Brighton stockyards being the only point in the State to 
which untested cattle may be shipped, in strict compliance 
with Federal regulations, our former work of testing at other 
points is reduced to a minimum and consists only of testing 
such animals as may arrive not accompanied by a record of 
tuberculin test. A few violations of the regulations occur, 
some of them through ignorance of Federal and State require- 
ments, and others in willful disregard of them. These latter 
cases are investigated when reported and prosecution in the 
courts is instituted if deemed advisable. 

Following are tabulations showing in detail the interstate 
cattle work of the Division at Brighton and other points : — 

At Brighton Quarantine Station from Dec. 1, 1919, to Nov. 30, 1920. 



Number accepted on approved records of test, . . 9,736 
Number received and tuberculin tested, .... 2,758 



12,494 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test, . . . 9,736 

Number released on first test, . ' . . . ' ■ . . 2,460 

Number released on second test, 85 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 

Number released on third test, . . . . . . • 5 

Number died awaiting second test, ..... 1 

Number released for slaughter on first test, ... 28 

Number released for slaughter on second test, ... 4 

Number condemned on physical symptoms, ... 1 
Number slaughtered on first test, lesions of tuberculosis 

found, 103 

Number slaughtered on second test, lesions of tuberculosis 

found, . . . . ■ . . . . . . . 37 

Number slaughtered on first test, lesions of tuberculosis 

not found, . 23 

Number slaughtered on second test, lesions of tuberculo- 
sis not found, . ... .' . ... 8 
Number slaughtered on third test, lesions of tuberculosis 

not found, . ... . '.. . : . . 1 

Number held awaiting disposal, 2 

12,494 



At Other Points from Dec. 1, 1919, to Nov. 30, 1920. 

Number condemned in 1919 awaiting slaughter in 1920, " 2 
Number held from 1919 awaiting test or other disposal 

in 1920, 37 

Number held from 1919 for retest or other disposal in 

1920, . . 8 

Number received during the year, 5,342 



5,389 



Disposal of Above Animals. 
Number released on accepted records of test, . . . 5,247 

Number released on test made after arrival, ... 89 

Number reacted and held till 1921 for disposal, . . 2 
Number condemned in 1919, slaughtered in 1920, lesions 

of tuberculosis found, 2 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found, . . 4 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found, . 1 
Number slaughtered on " permit to kill" warrant, 

lesions of tuberculosis found, 1 

Number slaughtered by owner under Federal supervi- 
sion, lesions of tuberculosis found, 4 

Number slaughtered by owner under Federal supervi- 
sion, lesions of tuberculosis not found, .... 3 
Number remaining in State temporarily, no test required, 23 
Number held awaiting release or test, .... 13 



5,389 



16 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Summary. 
Total interstate dairy cattle received at Brighton station, 
Total interstate dairy cattle received at other points, 



Origi 



n of the Above Interstate Cattle. 



Vermont, . 

Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

New York, 

Connecticut, . 

Rhode Island, . 

Other States and Canada, 



12,494 
5,389 



5,254 
6,207 
4,729 
1,040 

173 
42 

438 



17,883 



17,883 



Animals other than dairy cattle requiring tuberculin test 
received at other points than the quarantine stations may be 
classified as below: — 



Cattle not requiring Tuberculin Test. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter, 

Calves for immediate slaughter, 

Dairy calves under six months old, 

Cattle returned from out-of -State pastures, 

Cattle pastured in the State during the season, .... 

Feeder cattle, 

Lost in mountains, 

Unloaded for short stay on route through State, .... 

Returned from temporary stay in other States for breeding pur- 
poses, etc., 

Remaining in State for brief periods only, for breeding purposes, 
etc., 

For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions, . . . . 

Total, . 



1,916 

2,510 

215 

377 

77 

72 

1 

29 

9 



843 



6,057 



There are large slaughtering establishments at Haverhill, 
West Newbury and Springfield where Federal inspection of 
slaughtered animals is maintained, to which points cattle and 
calves for immediate slaughter may be shipped without special 
permit, record of which is not kept by this Division. There 
are on an average several thousand animals shipped to these 
points annually, and it is estimated that at least 90 to 95 per 
cent of them come into Massachusetts from other States. 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

Fourteen permits allowing shipment of cattle into the State 
were brought over from the previous year, report on them not 
having been received before the close of that year. There 
were 1,171 permits issued during the year; on 29 of these no 
report has yet been received. It was found that cattle were 
brought in without permits in 146 instances, comprising 996 
animals; 571 of these were accompanied by approved records 
of test; 48 were tested by Division veterinarians; 122 were 
Massachusetts cattle returned from pastures in other States; 
26 were dairy calves under six months old; 28 were feeder 
cattle; 1 had been out of the State only temporarily; 1 was 
lost track of; 29 remained in the State temporarily; and 170 
head were for immediate slaughter. These figures are all in- 
cluded in the statistical tables. 

During the past year Massachusetts cattle owners were not 
allowed to send their cattle into the State of New Hampshire 
for pasturage upon certificate of physical examination only, 
that State requiring that such cattle be tuberculin tested be- 
fore entering the State in accordance with the regular rules 
governing the interstate movement of cattle. The State of 
Vermont has not required the tuberculin test, but has allowed 
cattle to enter for pasturage only under rigid restrictions, re- 
quiring inspection and tagging before entering, and a strict 
accounting for before leaving the pastures in the fall. The 
State of New Hampshire takes the larger number of pasture 
cattle, a few going into Vermont and Maine. The records of 
this Division show that 99 head of cattle were tagged only, 
and 595 head were tuberculin tested by Massachusetts vet- 
erinarians, to be sent to pasture in other States. When re- 
turned to this State such cattle are accepted without further 
test, provided they can be checked up by their tag numbers. 

At a sale of Ayrshire cattle held in Springfield in June, 45 
animals came from other States, 17 of them being sold to 
remain in Massachusetts. At a sale of Hereford cattle in 
Worcester, which took place in May, 27 head came from out 
of the State, 15 being sold to remain. At the national Ayrshire 
sale occurring in Springfield in June, 34 head came from other 
States, 13 being sold to remain in Massachusetts. 

At the Eastern States Exposition held in Springfield in the 
latter part of September, and a sale of Aberdeen-Angus cattle 



18 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



held in connection therewith, 667 head were brought from 
other States, of which number 3 dairy cattle were sold to re- 
main in Massachusetts, and 2 head were sold for immediate 
slaughter. At this exposition there were 74 exhibitors of cat- 
tle, 23 exhibitors of sheep, and 18 exhibitors of swine. There 
were 896 head of cattle exhibited; there were 39 head of baby 
beef and Junior Extension Department calves (calves previously 
given to boys for fattening with the intention of having them 
exhibited at the exposition), and there were 70 head of nurse 
cows on the grounds, making a total of 1,005 cattle at the 
exhibition. There were 395 sheep, 304 head of swine, and 293 
horses on the grounds. 

In point of numbers this exposition was the largest since the 
Eastern States began to hold these exhibitions, and the average 
grade of animals exhibited was the highest. 

The Division keeps records of all animals received at the 
several quarantine stations, also the States from which neat 
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures: — 



Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. 30, 

1920. 

New Hampshire cattle, 3,559 



Vermont cattle, 
Calves, . 
Sheep and lambs, 
Swine, 



5,968 

24,860 

2,106 

3,353 



Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1920. 

Maine cattle, 

New Hampshire cattle, 



Vermont cattle, 

Massachusetts cattle, 

Western cattle, 

Canada cattle, 

Calves, . 

Sheep and lambs, . 

Swine, 



2,374 

2,302 

7,150 

1,944 

3,555 

514 

90,324 

246,504 

927,100 



Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1920. 

Maine cattle, 8,777 

New Hampshire cattle, 8,441 

Vermont cattle, 3,091 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



19 



Massachusetts cattle, 
New York cattle, 
Western cattle, 
Canada cattle, 
Calves, . 
Sheep and lambs, 
Swine, 



13,168 
11,335 
36,138 
356 
80,988 
11,360 
42.407 



Glanders. 

The prevalence of this disease among the equine species 
has been satisfactorily controlled during the past year and the 
number of positive cases found is at nearly the same low 
figure as during the year 1919. The record for that year was 
so low that much doubt has since existed as to our ability to 
maintain it at anywhere near the same point. However, on 
account of this low record for two successive years we feel still 
more confident that we are on the way toward total extermi- 
nation of this disease. 

We realize the importance of complete control not only on 
account of the great economic loss which it causes to owners 
of the different types of horses used for farm work, general 
business purposes, exhibition, breeding, and as a means of 
recreation and pleasure, but also on account of the danger of 
its communicability to the human subject, nearly always 
causing death of the person infected. 

Although the horse, as an aid to business and as a means of 
pleasure, has been to a great extent supplanted, he has been 
shown to be a really indispensable factor in the performance of 
the world's work, whether in times of peace or in war, and, 
what is of equally great importance, he is now of priceless 
value in the field of preventive medicine; that is, in the manu- 
facture of the various sera now used in the prevention and cure 
of disease, especially in the human subject. He is, therefore, 
an animal which must still be produced in large numbers, and 
be maintained free from contagious disease if possible. Con- 
sequently we are actively engaged at all times in the suppres- 
sion of glanders as the one principal disease of a contagious 
nature that affects horses, mules and asses. 

The successful methods by which the number of cases of 
glanders has been rapidly reduced in the past few years, and 
which have apparently solved what was formerly a difficult 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

problem of disease control, may be briefly referred to as fol- 
lows: — 

Immediate quarantine of all reported cases; prompt killing 
of all clinical cases, followed by disinfection of the premises 
where kept, of the blacksmith shops where shod, and of water- 
ing troughs where they were in the habit of drinking; exam- 
ination and re-examination of all contact animals, together 
with application of the several diagnostic tests when neces- 
sary; extension of the plan of testing whole stables; closing 
of public watering troughs in sections where an outbreak of 
the disease occurs; testing of all horses and mules shipped in- 
terstate from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, unless accompanied by satisfactory records of recent 
tests. 

The records of the Division for the year ending Nov. 30, 
1920, show the following facts: — 

At the end of 1919, 8 horses were under observation. Of 
this number, 1 died and 7 have been released as free from the 
disease. 

During the past year 124 suspected animals, in addition to 
the 8 mentioned above, have been examined. Of this number, 
27 animals proved to be positive cases and were destroyed in 
accordance with the requirements of the law; 1 was killed by 
its owner, autopsy proving it to have been a case of glanders; 
3 horses were killed at request of owners, post-mortem exam- 
ination failing to show lesions of glanders; 1 State and 2 inter- 
state horses were condemned and killed, no lesions of glanders 
being found on post-mortem examination, their full appraised 
value amounting to $225; 1 horse died before final diagnosis 
was made; 87 were released as free from the disease; and 2 
were still held under observation at the end of the year. 

In the so-called "stable tests/' or tests of all animals in 
stables where glanders has been found, 243 horses have been 
tested in 23 stables; among them 1 case of glanders was found 
and 1 horse is still held under observation. 

The above figures are all included in the tabulations which 
follow : — 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 



Horses reported as Suspected. 

Brought forward from the year 1919, . . . , . . 8 

Reported by renderer, 3 

Reported by inspectors, Division agents, veterinarians, owners, 

etc., . ■ 122 

Interstate, reported by inspectors, . . : . . . .2 

Contact animals examined in stable tests, . . . . . 243 



Disposal of Above Horses. 

Appraised and killed, positive, 28 

Killed by owner, positive, 1 

Reported by renderer, positive, 3 

32 

Killed at owner's request, no lesions found, ..... 3 

Appraised and killed, no lesions found (2 interstate, 1 State), . 3 

Killed by owner or died, no lesions found, ..... 2 

Released as not affected with glanders, 335 

Awaiting disposition, ' . 3 



378 



378 



Following is a table giving the number of cases of this disease 
covering a period of twenty-two years. In this table cases 
which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown separately, 
on account of the fact that Boston was for many years the 
storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of the number 
of cases in that city has always been made in order that its 
relative importance to other sections of the State may be 
studied. 



22 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Number of Cases. 



















Cases. 


Year, 


In Boston. 


In Other 
Places. 


Totals. 


1S99, 


159 


384 


543 


1900, 
















192 


507 


699 


1901, 
















197 


548 


745 


1902, 
















155 


580 


735 


1903, 
















250 


610 


860 


1904, 
















254 


555 


809 


1905, 
















210 


414 


624 


1906, 
















194 


376 


570 


1907, 
















308 


403 


711 


1908, 
















389 


552 


941 


1909, 
















278 


406 


684 


1910, 
















314 


362 


676 


1911, 
















387 


565 


952 


1912, 
















395 


446 


841 


1913, 
















556 


.528 


1,084 


1914, 
















355 


495 


850 


1915, 
















152 


250 


402 


1916, 
















157 


278 


435 


1917, 
















80 


206 


286 


1918, 
















89 


104 


193 


1919, 
















4 


19 


23 


1920, 
















6 


26 


32 





























1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



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24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the 
Animal Rescue League, and the branches of these various 
associations in many cities and towns of the State have through 
their agents always been of material aid to the Division in the 
work of controlling this disease. Their close observation of 
working animals of all classes has in the past, when the disease 
was more prevalent, brought to light many showing suspicious 
symptoms, which they have promptly reported to this Division, 
and many of the animals so reported have proved to be positive 
cases of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work and destroying those which, on 
account of extreme age or poor condition, are no longer useful 
has undoubtedly been a factor in the suppression of glanders, 
as such animals are very susceptible to infection. 

The maximum amount, fixed by chapter 646 of the Acts of 
1913, which may be paid for any one animal condemned and 
destroyed on account of being affected with glanders being 
$50, the appraised value of the animals condemned is a sub- 
ject of considerable interest. Of the 32 positive cases of glan- 
ders occurring during the year, 28 were appraised at a total 
valuation of $3,370, the average amount per animal being 
$120.36. On the remaining 4 animals no appraisal was made 
for the following reasons: 3 of them were reported by a Ten- 
derer and 1 was killed by owner, the disease being found on 
autopsy. 

Of the 28 horses which were appraised, 22 have been paid 
for, the amount paid being $1,100; in 3 cases there was no 
award, as the horses had not been in the Commonwealth the 
required length of time; and 3 cases are awaiting the filing 
of claims for payment. 

Complement-fixation Test. 

Of the 8 horses under observation at the end of the year 
1919, 2 were released without further test, 1 died, and 5 were 
subjected to the complement-fixation test, with the result that 
they were released as probably free from the disease. 

Two hundred and twenty samples of blood were taken from 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



25 



195 horses during the year 1920, and the following disposal of 
the animals was made : — 



Animals held over from 1919, disposed of as above, 

Animals released on first test, . 

Released on second test, . 

Died or killed by owner after first test, 

Condemned on first test, . - . 

Condemned on second test, 

Condemned on third test, 

Held for further observation after second test, 



5 
145 

18 
4 

18 
2 
2 
1 



195 



Ophthalmic-mallein Test. 

This test has been applied to 310 State and 619 interstate 
horses during the year. It happens that the test in some in- 
stances was repeated on the same animals, and 938 such tests 
have been made. The results are as follows: — 



Tests giving positive reaction, . 

Tests giving no reaction, . 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 



13 

910 

15 



938 



Interstate Horses. 

Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the 
States of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island must be accompanied by a permit from the Director of 
Animal Industry. This regulation was established on account 
of the prevalence of glanders among the horses of the States 
mentioned, and in order that upon arrival the animals might 
be immediately located and examined by agents of this Di- 
vision. 

The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these 
States has decreased from 4,168 in the year 1919 to 4,082 in 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1920, the statistics following: — 

Equine Animals from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and 

Rhode Island. 

Mules, 5 

Horses, 4,077 

4,082 



26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Released upon physical examination, 3,442 

Released upon accompanying papers without examination, 5 

Released after test, 619 

Released on route to other States, . .... 14 

Reacted to test, killed, no lesions found, .... 2 

4,082 



It is worthy of notice that no interstate horses or mules 
were found during the past year to have been affected with 
glanders. Many of the animals brought from the above-men- 
tioned States are of the better class, being highly bred horses 
used for carriage work and breeding purposes. The second- 
hand horses, which are trafficked in and sent from the markets 
of one State to those of another for purpose of public sale, 
have been specially watched on account of their being con- 
sidered more liable to be subjects of contagious disease than 
the higher class animals, and if not accompanied by a satis- 
factory certificate of test have been tested on arrival by in- 
spectors of the Division. 

Rabies. 

All species of domestic animals are susceptible to rabies, it 
is readily communicable to man, and a high rate of mortality 
always follows its development. For these reasons we realize 
the necessity for close observation on the part of town and 
State officials charged with its control. 

An outbreak in any locality can generally be confined within 
reasonable limits if there is prompt notification given to local 
inspectors of animals or to this Division, so that the measures 
generally recognized as effective in its control may be at once 
put into operation. In its spread from one locality to another, 
the dog is alone the factor, unless the possibility of its being 
continuously prevalent, to a greater or less degree, in wild 
animals is admitted, and that the contagion is readily trans- 
mitted to the dog running at large. The ownerless or stray 
dog is generally the first rabid animal to be found in any com- 
munity, and the extent to which he may have spread the in- 
fection depends on how soon he has been apprehended after 
he developed the disease. No one being interested in the 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 

whereabouts or physical condition of the ownerless dog, he 
becomes an active spreader of the disease before attention is 
centered on him. A more rigid enforcement of the dog laws 
would be of great assistance in suppressing this troublesome 
disease. 

The quarantining of animals which are found to have been 
exposed to a suspected or positive case, their confinement and 
restraint, causes much inconvenience and in some cases con- 
siderable expense to their owners. When persons have been 
bitten by animals positively known to be rabid at the time, 
or subsequently proved to be infected with the disease, there 
follows in some instances more or less nervousness on the part 
of the people; also considerable monetary loss occasionally 
occurs by the death of valuable dogs or other infected animals. 

While dogs are the animals which are principally the victims 
of this disease, a few cases yearly occur in horses, cattle, sheep, 
swine or cats, the source of which can generally be traced to 
the canine animal. 

Division records this year show a larger number of cases 
reported than in any year since 1916, when the lowest preva- 
lence for fifteen years was recorded, since which time there 
has been a gradual increase in their numbers. It is probable 
that we have not yet reached the peak of the upward trend 
of prevalence as yearly recorded, on account of the vast 
amount of contagion recently existing in near-by States, the 
invasion of Massachusetts by it having been forecasted in our 
reports for the past three years. 

Local inspectors of animals are familiar with the situation, 
and those of border towns are specially advised as to the im- 
portance of early quarantine, thorough investigation and prompt 
detailed reports to this office. 

Following is a general outline of the Division's present 
methods in rabies control work: — 

Upon report being made to the Division that a person has 
been bitten by a dog, the inspector of animals of the town or 
city in which it occurs is ordered to make an examination of 
the animal, and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it 
restrained for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of 
observation. The restraint for this length of time is deemed 
necessary for the reason that competent authorities have 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

shown that in some instances the bite of a dog infected with 
rabies may communicate the infection fourteen days before 
the animal shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this 
period no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may 
be released. In case a person is bitten by a dog which, upon 
examination by the inspector of animals or any other person, 
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, or there 
is a history of its having been in contact with a rabid animal, 
the dog in either case is immediately confined in strict quar- 
antine. If it is subsequently killed or dies, its head is at once 
sent to the Division's office, and a laboratory examination of 
the brain is made for the purpose of positively determining 
whether or not the animal was affected with the disease. In- 
formation as to the laboratory findings is promptly com- 
municated to the person or persons who have been bitten. 
The State Department of Public Health is given the infor- 
mation received in every case of dog bite reported to this 
office, whether the bite has been inflicted by an animal sus- 
pected of rabies or not. We also order the local inspector of 
animals not only to ascertain the names of all persons who have 
been bitten by dogs suspected of rabies but to find out if 
animals have also been bitten, and if so to place the same in 
quarantine for a period of at least ninety days. All dogs 
which are found to have been in contact with a rabid animal, 
whether or not it appears that they have been bitten by it, 
are also placed in quarantine for the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist in 
any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or board of al- 
dermen are asked to issue a restraining order, under the pro- 
visions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. 
Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals 
to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- 
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more ef- 
fective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 
which compels owners to muzzle the animals only but not 
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way 
get the muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muz- 
zled dog at large may therefore become much more dangerous 
than an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



29 



owner's premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs 
found running at large while a restraining order issued by 
town or city authorities is in force may be killed on the issu- 
ance of a warrant for the same to a police officer. It was 
found advisable to ask for general restraining orders in fifteen 
towns of the Commonwealth during the past year. These 
orders were for periods of ninety days. 

Our force of district agents, all of whom are veterinarians 
and located in different parts of the State, together with the 
local inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in 
every city and town of the State, constitutes an organization 
by which systematic local control of an outbreak of this dis- 
ease can generally be accomplished within a reasonably short 
time. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1920, 769 animals were re- 
ported to the Division for diagnosis, observation or quarantine 
on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 28 were brought 
forward from the year 1919. The records have been classified 
as follows : — 

Animals suspected of rabies, primary cases, 171 

Animals exposed to rabies (26 reported in 1919, 385 in 1920), . . 411 
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (2 reported in 1919, 

213 in 1920), 215 

Animals suspected of Rabies, Primary Cases. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Swine. 


Diagnosis positive, 

Diagnosis questionable, .... 


121 

34 

8 


3 


1 

1 
1 


1 
1 



Animals exposed to Rabies. 



Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


148 


36 


2 


102 


4 


42 


- 


4 


- 


- 


34 


5 


- 


6 


1 


25 


- 


- 


- 


1 



Drake. 



Number released after a quarantine 

of ninety days. 
Number killed, no symptoms having 

developed. 
Number killed, positive symptoms 

having developed. 
Number still held under observation, 



30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons. 





Dogs. 


Cats. 


Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having de- 
veloped. 
Number killed, no examination, 

Number released after fourteen days' quarantine, . 


27 

4 

178 

2 


3 
1 



Of the 28 animals which were under observation at the close 
of the year 1919, 27 were released, no symptoms of rabies hav- 
ing developed. One, a horse, developed symptoms of the dis- 
ease five months after contact with a rabid dog, and was 
killed. 

The questionable cases given in the preceding table may be 
briefly referred to as follows: 3 dogs were killed by police 
officers, showing symptoms which they considered suspicious; 
1 dog was found dead, 2 were killed, and 1 pig was killed, 
laboratory examination in all 4 cases being unsatisfactory; 1 
dog was chloroformed by its owner, having shown suspicious 
symptoms; 1 dog, which had probably been exposed, disap- 
peared; and in case of 1 cat no laboratory examination was 
made. 

During the past year the Division received reports of 296 
persons having been bitten by dogs, and 5 persons having been 
bitten by cats. Sixty-two of these persons were bitten by 26 
of the dogs classified in the tables as positive cases. In all 
cases of dog bite which are reported, the dog is immediately 
quarantined for observation except in cases where the animal 
is immediately killed. Of the cases of dog bite reported, 231 
were inflicted by dogs proved not to be affected with rabies. 
One case was that of a dog on which laboratory examination 
was questionable, and 2 cases of bite were by dogs which are 
still in quarantine for observation. 

All persons bitten were officially notified of the results of 
laboratory examination of the brains of the rabid animals. 
Prompt notice was also given the State Department of Public 
Health, and it is probable that in many cases where examina- 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 

tion gave positive results, the Pasteur treatment in preven- 
tion of rabies was administered to the persons bitten, either 
under supervision of health officials or by private physicians. 
Six dogs bitten by rabid animals were also given antirabic 
treatment. 

It is deemed advisable, in all cases where possible, that the 
heads of animals supposed to be affected with rabies should be 
examined at the laboratory in order to confirm diagnosis. 
During the past year laboratory examination has been made 
of the brains of 149 dogs, 3 cats, 7 swine and 4 cattle. Of this 
number, 93 dogs, 5 swine and 4 cattle showed positive evidence 
of the disease. 

Of the 769 animals reported for observation, diagnosis or 
quarantine during the year, 48 dogs were, as far as could be 
ascertained, ownerless and unlicensed, 29 of which proved to 
be positive cases of the disease. 

One dog which was killed in April on account of being af- 
fected was known to have been bitten in August of 1919. 

In another case, the disease developed 83 days after the 
animal was bitten. 

A dog was killed in Townsend, Vt., in February, having 
traveled there from Ashby, Mass., a distance of approximately 
100 miles. This dog prior to leaving Ashby was known to 
have bitten a dog at the same premises, which latter dog de- 
veloped rabies in June. 

In 1 case which proved to be rabies the dog had been brought 
into Massachusetts from Kansas City, Mo., a few weeks before 
the development of the disease. Upon inquiry it was found 
that rabies was very prevalent in that city about that time. 

In one instance a Great Dane dog ran through five different 
towns, and was known to have come in contact with 12 other 
dogs, which were immediately quarantined, 5 of which later 
developed the disease. 

The following table shows the number of positive cases of 
rabies by cities and towns : — 



32 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Pigs. 


Cats. 


Arlington, . . . . 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Ashby, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


Athol 


■ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Attleboro, . 




3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Barnstable, . 


• , 


1 


- 


- 




- 


Berkley, 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bolton, 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Boston (Hyde Park 1, 


Roxbury 


3 


- 


- 




- 


Boylston, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Brockton, 




10 


- 


- • 


- 


- 


Canton, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Dartmouth, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Dedham, 




4 


- 


- 


■ - 


- 


Douglas, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


East Bridgewater, 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Easton, 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fall River, . 




20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fitchburg, . 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Foxborough, 




- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Franklin, 


■ • 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Freetown, . 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Grafton, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hanover, 




3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hopedale, . 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Hopkinton, 




4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Lancaster, . 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Leicester, . . 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mansfield, . 




3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Medfield, 




6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Medway, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Mendon, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Middleborough, . 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Millbury, 




2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Millis, . 




3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Milton, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Needham, . 




3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


New Bedford, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Newburyport, 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Paxton, ' 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Plainville, . 




- • 


1 


- 


- 


- 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



33 



City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Pigs. . 


Cats. 


Rehoboth, 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Royalston, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Seekonk, 










3 


2 


- 


1 


- 


Sharon, 










2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Somerset, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Stoughton, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Sutton, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Swansea, 










4 


- 


- 


5 


- 


Taunton, 










16 


- 


1 


- 


- 


Uxbridge, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Walpole, 










3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wayland, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Webster, 










2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wellesley, 










1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Westborough, 




' 




1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


West Boylston, 








1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Westminster, 








1 


- 


- 


'- 


- 


Weston, 








1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Westport, 








8 


4 


- 


- 


- 


Westwood, . 








2 


- 


- 


- 




Weymouth, 








1 


- 


- 


-r 


- 


Worcester, . 








3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wrentham, . 








3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Totals, . 




155 


8 


1 


6 


1 



Following is a chart showing the proved cases of rabies in 
the several species of animals covering the period from 1905 
to 1920, inclusive. 



34 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



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1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 35 



Hog Cholera. 

The reports from our annual inspection show that the num- 
ber of swine found on the farms this year has reduced from 
108,108, last year's record, to 100,982, a reduction of approxi- 
mately 7,500 head, or 7 per cent. This is a much smaller de- 
cline than had been forecasted, but undoubtedly it will still 
further continue unless market conditions change for the 
better. 

During the progress of the World War, when an increased 
production in this country of all kinds of animal products used 
for food became a vital necessity in order that the world sup- 
ply of food might be maintained, the raising of swine was 
rapidly taken up by many people not previously engaged 
therein. They did this in many instances from patriotic mo- 
tives alone, and the number of animals raised in one or two 
pig lots was larger by thousands than one would estimate. 
During these war years, therefore, the number of swine raised 
in the State was far beyond the average, but soon returned 
to normal when the stimulus of war conditions ceased to be 
operative. 

Certain other conditions have this year operated to largely 
reduce the number of swine in the State. The high price of 
feed of all kinds continuing for the greater part of the year, 
during all of which time the market price of live hogs has 
steadily declined, are two conditions very discouraging to the 
swine owner who may be raising hogs for the market as a bus- 
iness project. For these reasons alone many persons formerly 
engaged in that business have suspended operations until 
market conditions shall have become more favorable. We 
consequently find this year that numbers of swine in the State 
have largely reduced, and that the average amount of con- 
tagious disease prevalent has declined in proportion. 

The Division's work in prevention of disease in swine, which 
was commenced in 1914, was undertaken primarily on account 
of the existence of hog cholera, which disease prevailed to such 
an extent and carried such a high mortality rate that the 
raising of swine in any considerable numbers was a very un- 



36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

certain enterprise, especially so if their principal food was 
garbage, a proved carrier of this contagion. 

Although it had been shown that garbage contained all the 
food elements necessary to proper growth of swine, and fur- 
thermore that in many communities it was a complete waste, 
not utilized in any economic way whatever, yet many were 
deterred from using it as a food for swine on account of what 
was a common experience, namely, an outbreak of hog cholera, 
which in many instances destroyed a whole herd. 

The raisers of pure-bred swine also found the chances in 
their business greatly increased by the danger of this con- 
tagion, even though garbage was not fed. 

For seven years the Division has been engaged in the im- 
munization of swine against this scourge, with the result that 
the production and successful raising of this species on garbage 
as a food has been rendered a safe project, and the foundation 
stock as represented by pure-breds has been protected against 
a serious danger. The only thing necessary to success in all 
instances is the immunization of the animals while healthy, 
not waiting until the disease has appeared before applying for 
our service. The treatment is specifically in prevention of 
disease and is not a curative. .While we always endeavor to 
save the animals which are sick, more or less deaths are bound 
to occur when the disease is actually present in the herd. 

The objective striven for during the past seven years by 
the Division of Animal Industry's work in this line has already 
been reached, and we now unhesitatingly refer to it as a public 
sanitary control service of much importance, of great value to 
the live-stock industry, and a work directly in conservation 
of the people's food supply. 

Following is a list of cities and towns in which hog cholera 
prevention work has been carried on during the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1920: — 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



37 





Herds 


Inoculations. 










City or Town. 


inoculated. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Abington, 


2 


20 


40 


60 


Acton, 










1 


4 


8 


12 


Adams, 










2 


40 





40 


Agawam, . 










7 


114 


58 


172 


Amesbury, 










1 


3 


1 


4 


Amherst, . 










5 


138 


19 


157 


Andover, . 










4 


39 


5 


44 


Arlington, . 










1 


6 


6 


12 


Ashburnham, 










2 


' 2 





2 


Ashland, 










1 


2 


1 


3 


Athol, 










2 


10 


19 


29 


Attleboro, . 










3 


109 


60 


169 


Auburn, 










18 


80 


86 


166 


Ayer, . 










2 


287 


460 


747 


Barnstable, 










5 


57 


57 


114 


Barre, 










1 





13 


13 


Becket, 










1 


9 





9 


Belmont, . 










4 


690 


634 


1,324 


Berlin, 










3 


9 





9 


Beverly, 










1 


118 


11 


129 


Billerica, 










2 


13 


11 


24 


Bolton, 










2 


19 





19 


Boston, 










7 


675 


577 


1,252 


Bourne, 










1 


28 


6 


34 


Braintree, . 










4 


73 


89 


162 


Bridgewater, 










1 


257 


154 


411 


Brockton, . 










5 


639 


718 


1,357 


Brookfield, 










3 


80 


8 


88 


Brookline, . 










2 


28 


10 


38 


Burlington, 










3 


919 


1 


920 


Canton, 










2 


58 


57 


115 


Charlton, . 










1 


40 


20 


60 


Chelmsford, 










3 


36 





36 


Cheshire, . 










1 


7 





7 


Chester, 










1 


19 


1 


20 


Chicopee, . 










24 


293 


104 


397 


Clarksburg, 










1 


6 





6 


Clinton, 










14 


83 


20 


103 


Cohasset, . 










1 


2 


23 


25 


Concord, . 










5 


141 


55 


196 


Dalton, 










1 


170 


84 


254 


Dana, . 










1 


4 





4 


Danvers, . 










1 


239 


186 


425 


Dartmouth, 










3 


79 


42 


121 


Dedham, . 










4 


62 


14 


76 


Deerfield, . 










3 


23 





23 


Dover, 










3 


69 


27 


96 


Dracut, 










1 


7 





7 


Easthampton, 










9 


29 


23 


52 


East Longmeadc 


w, 








6 


43 


50 


93 


Easton, 










2 


12 


8 


20 


Enfield, . 










1 


1 





1 


Fairhaven, 










6 


13 


20 


33 


Fall River, 










2 


3 


13 


16 


Fitchburg, 










23 


454 


287 


741 


Foxborough, 










2 


80 


186 


266 


Gardner, 










19 


219 


263 


482 


Gill, . 










2 


32 


37 


69 


Gloucester, 










7 


382 


198 


580 


Grafton, 










6 


171 


186 


357 


Granby, 










1 


9 





9 


Greenfield, 










4 


163 


60 


223 


Greenwich, 










1 





25 


25 


Groton, 










1 


6 


6 


12 


Hadley, 










2 


5 


6 


11 


Hampden, 










2 


17 





17 


Hancock, . 










1 


6 





6 


Hanover, . 










1 





8 


8 


Hanson, 










1 


9 





9 


Hardwick, . 










2 


16 


6 


22 


Harvard, . 










4 


21 





21 


Harwich, . 










1 


2 





2 



38 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 





Herds 
inoculated. 


Inoculations. 


City or Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Haverhill, . . .... 


4 


73 


11 


84 


Holden, 










3 


27 


17 


44 


Holliston, . 










1 


17 





17 


Holyoke, . 










10 


205 


105 


310 


Hudson, 










2 


17 





17 


Huntington, 










1 


7 





7 


Ipswich, 










4 


49 


143 


192 


Kingston, . 










1 


1 





1 


Lakeville, . 










1 


124 


286 


410 


Lancaster, . 










8 


34 


8 


42 


Lanesborough, 










1 


12 


2 


14 


Lawrence, . 










3 


44 


66 


110 


Lee, . 

Leicester, . 










4 
2 


15 

28 


10 
32 


25 
60 


Lenox, 










1 


58 


17 


75 


Leominster, 










1 


113 


109 


222 


Lexington, 










17 


2,420 


1,466 


3,886 


Lincoln, 










9 


363 


130 


493 


Littleton, . 










2 


91 


98 


189 


Longmeadow, 










4 


454 


352 


806 


Lowell, 










3 


195 


255 


450 


Ludlow, 










6 


368 


234 


602 


Lunenburg, 










2 


138 


39 


177 


Lynn, 










2 


43 


14 


57 


Maiden, 










2 


7 


10 


17 


Manchester, 










4 


50 


20 


70 


Marblehead, 










10 


195 


78 


273 


Marion, 










1 


15 


54 


69 


Marlborough, 










2 


15 


9 


24 


Mattapoisett, 










2 


9 


1 


10 


Medfield, . 










2 


176 


131 


307 


Medford, 










2 


10 





10 


Medway, . 










3 


6 


1 


7 


Melrose, 










1 


2 





2 


Methuen, . 










2 


12 


9 


21 


Milford, 










6 


36 


61 


97 


Millbury, . 










5 


113 


115 


228 


Milton, 










3 


167 


118 


285 


Monson, 










1 


33 


66 


95 


Nantucket, 










8 


15 


7 


22 


Natick, 










7 


239 


180 


419 


Need ham, . 










10 


498 


413 


911 


New Bedford, 










2 


83 


151 


234 


Newbury, . 










3 


13 





13 


Newbury port, 










22 


68 


47 


115 


Newton, 










3 


94 


20 


114 


North Adams, 










4 


398 


210 


608 


Northampton, 










15 


364 


184 


548 


North Andover, 








1 


3 





3 


North Attleborough, 








3 


103 


99 


202 


Northbridge, 








5 


64 


80 


144 


Northfield, 










3 


217 


75 


292 


North Reading, 










2 


101 


131 


232 


Norton, 










2 


36 


30 


66 


Norwood, . 










2 


9 


70 


79 


Orange, 










2 


7 


4 


11 


Oxford, 










2 


57 


58 


115 


Palmer, 










1 


46 


9 


55 


Paxton, 










2 


34 


78 


112 


Peabody, . 










10 


470 


277 


747 


Pepper ell, . 










1 


3 





3 


Pittsfield, . 










29 


680 


340 


1,020 


Plymouth, 










5 


148 


246 


394 


Princeton, . 










2 


11 


6 


17 


Provincetown, 










40 


83 


5 


88 


Quincy, 










1 





20 


20 


Randolph, 










2 


17 


27 


44 


Reading, . 










2 


7 


12 


19 


Rehoboth, 










1 


4 


1 


5 


Revere, 










6 


1,101 


788 


1,889 


Rockport, . 










3 


30 


9 


39 


Rowley, 










2 


11 





11 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



39 



City ok Town. 



Russell, 

Rutland, . 

Salem, 

Salisbury, . 

Sandwich, . 

Saugus, 

Seekonk, . 

Sharon, 

Shelburne, 

S her born, . 

Shirley, 

Shrewsbury, 

Somerset, . 

Somerville, 

Southborough, . 

Southbridge, 

South Hadley, . 

Spencer, 

Springfield, 

Stone ham, 

Stoughton, 

Sturbridge, 

Sudbury, . 

Sunderland, 

Sutton, 

Swampscott, 

Swansea, . 

Taunton, . 

Templeton, 

Tewksbury, 

Townsend, 

Tyngsborough, . 

Uxbridge, . 

Wakefield, . 

Walpole, 

Waltham, . 

Watertown, 

Wayland, . 

Webster, 

Wellesley, . 

Wen ham, . 

Westborough, 

Westfield, . 

Weston, 

Westport, . 

West Springfield, 

Westwood, 

Weymouth, 

Whately, . 

Wilbraham, 

Williamstown, . 

Wilmington, 

Winchendon, 

Woburn, 

Worcester, . 

Wrentham, 

Totals, 



Herds 
inoculated. 



1 
3 
5 

2 
1 
9 

12 
4 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
1 
4 
3 
6 
1 

36 
1 
8 
1 
1 
6 
1 
1 
5 
5 
7 
1 
8 
1 
1 
5 
1 

16 
3 
1 

11 
2 
2 
3 
8 
4 
1 
5 
3 
5 
3 
2 
1 
5 
7 
8 

20 
2 



874 



Inoculations. 



Serum and 
Virus. 



6 

57 

192 

5 



95 

650 



1 

62 

125 

143 


15 
19 


99 

4 

1,613 

14 

48 

1 
52 
25 

1 

29 

1,606 

275 

20 

171 

16 

14 

11 

7 



1,540 

200 

2 
27 
33 
27 
191 
57 
56 

3 

32 

261 

3 
10 
38 

9 

3 

46 

180 

3,822 

111 



30,280 



Serum 
only. 





75 

116 

1 

5 

146 

475 

12 

7 

45 

142 

218 

2 



8 

20 

47 



653 



26 



2 





6 

708 

198 

63 

150 

14 

55 

21 



8 

1,196 

161 



23 

18 

8 

133 

87 

49 



20 

361 

53 

2 

8 



24 

46 

171 

2,729 

202 



Total. 



21,225 



132 

308 

6 

5 

241 

1,125 

12 

8 

107 

267 

361 

2 

15 

27 

20 

146 

4 

2,266 

14 

74 

1 

54 

25 

1 

35 

2,314 

473 

83 

321 

30 

69 

32 

7 

8 

2,736 

361 

2 

50 

51 

35 

324 

144 

105 

3 

52 

622 

56 

12 

46 

9 

27 

92 

351 

6,551 

313 



51,505 



The preceding table shows that work has been done in 
200 cities and towns this year, 32 less than during 1919, but 
necessitating 1,675 visits by one or more inspectors. In ad- 
dition there were 73 'visits made to places where the swine were 
not treated for the following reasons: the animals in some in- 
stances had no chance of recovery; in others the trouble was 



40 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

found to be some non-contagious infection; again in some of 
the cases proper sanitary conditions necessary to successful 
work could not be established; and in a few cases the owners 
did not desire to have the animals treated. 

The chart on the opposite page shows in a general way the 
hog cholera prevention work from the time of its inception to 
the present, and comparative statistics in detail are shown in 
tables which follow it. 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



41 





— 








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ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



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1921.] 



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44 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The preceding chart and tables of comparative statistics re- 
lating to our hog cholera control work show the following 
facts which should be briefly referred to : — 

Very many less treatments with anti-hog cholera serum or 
hog cholera virus, applied either as "serum only" or "simul- 
taneous" treatment, have been called for this year than during 
the year closing Nov. 30, 1919. In our opinion, this indicates 
an improvement in the general situation this year as to preva- 
lence of the contagion. A similar diminution of cases has been 
reported to be the situation in all other sections of the country, 
1920 being referred to as a "low year" as to incidence of the 
disease. 

The tables also show that the number of herds positively 
known to be infected at time of treatment is lower this year 
than during any of the previous five years, and this decrease 
in number of infected herds is so very marked that it must be 
considered another very strong indication of improvement in 
the general situation. 

Finally, the mortality rates, as shown in the statistics of 
work done in these infected herds, are so low as to merit 
particular attention, even in comparison with our own records 
of previous years. It may be said in passing that Massa- 
chusetts records in this particular, and in comparison with 
those of other sections of the country, have always commanded 
special attention and have brought forth much commendation 
as indicating a high quality of work done. 

The sanitary conditions under which swine are kept, while 
found to be somewhat improved from year to year, are never- 
theless far from what they ought to be. We have found in 
many instances where serious losses of animals have occurred 
that the primary causative factor has been unsanitary or poor 
housing conditions, which have lowered the vitality and the 
normal resistance of the animals to disease, allowing bacterial 
invasion a favorable opening. Such conditions also seriously 
handicap recovery from disease and delay the elimination of 
infection. While perfect sanitary conditions are hard to ob- 
tain in piggeries as generally managed, yet very great improve- 
ment can be made on many premises and would be followed 
by results which undoubtedly would be evident in more pigs, 
healthier pigs, and consequently a better financial showing. 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. fe. 45 

At the present time the diseases of swine are probably re- 
ceiving more attention on the part of swine raisers, veterina- 
rians, live-stock sanitary officials and those engaged in sci- 
entific research than at any period in the history of control 
work in contagious diseases of animals. The ultimate result 
will undoubtedly be the solution of many of the control prob- 
lems which now confront us. 

By reason of our work in the control of hog cholera we have 
been brought in close touch with many other disease condi- 
tions, some of which are of serious menace to the raisers of 
swine. In their clinical aspects many so closely resemble 
hog cholera that differential diagnoses are difficult and only 
arrived at after considerable investigation both in the field 
and in the laboratory. 

Hemorrhagic septicemia, necrotic enteritis, and various mixed 
infections have been more prevalent than usual this year, 
either as primary or secondary invaders often co-existent with 
hog cholera. Against these diseases, and to accomplish their 
prevention or cure, we are at all times at the service of swine 
owners, and are endeavoring to execute in this direction the 
best quality of work suggested by the present-day knowledge 
concerning these infections. Results in the main are highly 
satisfactory in a practical sense, as many thousands of animals 
are saved by treatment. 

During the past year approximately 16,000 treatments in 
prevention or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia have been ad- 
ministered in the form of either sera vaccines or bacterins, 
singly or in combinations as deemed advisable, and the pros- 
pect is that this branch of our work will be actively continued 
the coming year on account of general recognition by swine 
owners of its value. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 
Anthrax. — Although an extensive prevalence of anthrax 
has not occurred in Massachusetts for many years, there are 
recorded every year the deaths of a small number of animals 
from this disease. Our records show that in this State cattle 
and sheep are the species most commonly affected, and we 
have an occasional case in the horse. Nearly all species of 
domesticated animals are susceptible, however, and infection 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

of the human subject frequently occurs. The mode of trans- 
mission to man is generally by the handling of carcasses, hides 
or wool of animals which have been affected with the disease. 
We record this year one case of the disease in the human sub- 
ject. The person affected was the owner of a number of cat- 
tle whose deaths from the disease had occurred at different 
times during a period of several months, which animals had 
been cared for by him and whose carcasses had been handled 
by him. He fortunately recovered. 

On account of the danger of transmission of this disease to 
people it can be readily seen that we should be particularly 
anxious to limit its prevalence by every means at our com- 
mand. All reported cases of an outbreak among animals are 
immediately investigated and subsequent action is taken as 
deemed advisable by the facts disclosed. Positive diagnosis 
is first necessary, and, as the animals generally either are found 
dead or die before arrival of a veterinarian or Division in- 
spector, a post-mortem examination would ordinarily be de- 
pended upon to confirm the suspicions of anthrax. As post- 
mortem appearances in this disease are often not sufficiently 
characteristic to justify a positive diagnosis, and as the open- 
ing of a carcass allows the body fluids to. escape and possibly 
spread the infection, it is advised that the suspected carcass 
be not opened, but that a specimen of blood be drawn from 
the cadaver on to a piece of glass and then allowed to dry in 
the air. If this specimen is not badly contaminated by care- 
less preparation, and is promptly forwarded to a laboratory, 
there is no difficulty in determining whether or not anthrax 
bacilli are present. 

A field diagnosis or suspicion of anthrax having been con- 
firmed, preventive measures at once follow. They consist of 
proper disposal of diseased carcasses, disinfection of premises, 
and preventive inoculation of susceptible and exposed animals. 

To prevent infection spreading from a carcass it should be 
burned or deeply buried, covered with quicklime. Anthrax 
bacilli or their spores if not destroyed may continue to infect 
soil for a long time; in many instances these organisms have 
been found to remain active for a number of years. We 
recommend that any contaminated ground be burned over 
and the surface area above a buried carcass be fenced and 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 

burned over yearly. Any contaminated portions of buildings 
if wooden should be torn out and burned, and if concrete 
should be thoroughly disinfected. 

The remaining animals of the herd should be at once re- 
moved to other buildings or areas, and the apparently healthy 
ones inoculated in prevention of the disease. Animals already 
affected are sometimes successfully treated, but ordinarily the 
disease runs such a rapid course that death takes place before 
the animal is noticed to be seriously sick, and our efforts are 
consequently limited to protection of the animals not show- 
ing symptoms. Although a certain percentage of deaths may 
reasonably be expected to occur among the inoculated animals, 
we find in actual experience that fatalities are very few. 

Preventive inoculation is supposed to confer immunity for 
a period of at least twelve months. At premises where an 
outbreak has occurred and there is reason to fear permanent 
infection, it is advised that all susceptible animals be given a 
preventive inoculation each succeeding year for a certain 
period. 

During the past year the disease has occurred in 11 head of 
cattle, 1 horse and 7 sheep on 4 different premises in 3 towns. 
Of these 19 animals, 2 were in the town of Conway, 13 in the 
town of Cummington, and 4 in Sheffield. The preventive in- 
oculation has been applied to 263 head of cattle, 11 horses and 
38 sheep on 12 different premises located in 6 towns. 

In one herd of 29 cattle where the disease broke out and 
two immediately died, all the remaining animals were given 
preventive inoculation and no additional deaths occurred. 
In one herd of 40 cattle given preventive inoculation, 1 cow 
died within an hour. Reported anthrax in 4 instances proved 
upon investigation to be some other disease. 

Blackleg. — This disease, more or less prevalent in many 
parts of the world and generally fatal, affects young cattle 
only, except in rare instances. It is readily prevented by a 
yearly protective inoculation of the susceptible animals. As 
it generally develops during the pasture season we recommend 
that the inoculations be made just before turning the animals 
to pasture in the spring. This service is rendered by the 
Division free of expense to cattle owners, and if it is called 
for at the proper season, or in case of outbreak among un- 



48 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



treated animals it is promptly reported and the non-affected 
ones are thereupon inoculated in prevention of the disease, 
and then removed to other pastures, its prevalence is limited 
and the fatalities are few. 

Blackleg is a disease generally contracted from infected soil 
and is seldom transmitted directly from animal to animal, 
differing in this respect from many other contagious diseases. 
Authorities agree that the bacilli seem to be capable of mul- 
tiplying in the soil, and through their resisting spores to pre- 
serve their capacity of development and infectiousness even 
under unfavorable conditions. This, as well as the fact that 
bacteria from carcasses of dead animals again infect the soil, 
explains the fact that we always fear a yearly recurrence of 
the disease on certain farms, and consequently recommend 
preventive treatment of all young cattle pastured on premises 
where the disease has once existed. 

During this year we have administered preventive inocula- 
tion to 989 animals on 143 farms in 47 towns, as tabulated 
below : — 



Ashburnham, 






Pre 


mises. 

4 


Ashby, 
Ashfield, 








9 
1 


Athol, . 








2 


Ayer, . 
Becket, 








1 

2 


Blandford, . 








1 


Boxborough, 
Brimfield, . 








4 

1 


Buckland, . 








1 


Cheshire, 








2 


Chester, 








3 


Dalton, 








1 


Fitchburg, . 








3 


Gardner, 








2 


Great Barringtor 
Greenwich, 


h 






1 
2 


Harvard, 








• 3 


Holyoke, 
Lee, 








5 
9 


Leicester, . 








1 


Leverett, 








1 


Littleton, . 








7 


Middlefield, 








. 6 



Montague, . 

New Marlborough, 

North Adams, 

Northampton, 

Orange, 

Otis, . 

Peru, . 

Pittsfield, 

Prescott, 

Rowe, . 

Royalston, 

Sandisfield, 

Shelburne, . 

Southampton, 

Templeton, 

Townsend, . 

Tyringham, 

Warwick, . 

Wendell, 

Westhampton, 

Williamstown, 

Winchendon, 

Windsor, 



Premises. 
1 
1 

1 

5 
12 
1 
1 
5 
1 
7 
3 
5 
4 
2 
3 
4 
3 
6 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 

The records show that our work this year has been done on 
213 fewer animals than last year and on 5 fewer farms, the 
number of towns in which these farms are located being the 
same. The deaths reported are 15 head of cattle on 3 dif- 
ferent premises, a reduction of 12 in the number of fatalities. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, 
regarding disposal of infected carcasses by burning or deep 
burial, followed by disinfection of contaminated areas or build- 
ings, are applicable in outbreaks of blackleg. 

Actinomycosis. — ■ Eleven cases of this disease have been re- 
ported this year, located as follows: 1 each in Avon, Boston, 
Colrain, Harwich, Millis, Milton, New Bedford, Northfield and 
Scituate, and 2 in the town of Plymouth. 

It is our custom to quarantine affected animals so that they 
may not be sold, but allow the owner to have treatment ap- 
plied by a veterinarian, or to fatten them for slaughter. In 
a few cases recovery takes place and such animals are then 
released from quarantine. 

Of the 11 cases on this year's record, 8 have been slaughtered, 
2 have been released as recovered, and the remaining 1 is still 
held in quarantine. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This is a disease of very 
great prominence in some sections of the country, where it 
causes the sudden death of large numbers of cattle. Its 
prevalence in Massachusetts, however, is limited, and confined 
to isolated cases in widely separated localities. Our records 
show fewer deaths from the disease this year than last, 22 
fatalities only being reported. These occurred in the towns of 
Berlin (3), Medfield (2), Templeton (9), Winchendon (4), and 
1 each in the towns of Gardner, Hubbardston, Spencer and 
Wellfleet. 

Preventive inoculation of all animals in a herd where the 
disease has appeared is generally successful in controlling its 
further extension, and we advise also that all animals be re- 
moved from a pasture where an outbreak occurs. This alone 
is sometimes sufficient to prevent further losses. Preventive 
inoculation has been administered to' 43 head of cattle during 
the year. 

An analogous type of hemorrhagic septicemia appeared in 



50 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

a herd of goats in the town of Lexington, resulting in the 
death of six animals. The remainder of the herd, 85 in num- 
ber, was given preventive inoculation, and no additional fatal- 
ities occurred. 

Parasitic Diseases. — The study of animal parasites and their 
damaging effect on profitable live-stock raising is at the present 
time going on in a more intensive and scientific manner than 
ever before in the history of animal-disease control work. 
The result of this study is already being reflected in the in- 
creased attention given the subject by stock owners and vet- 
erinarians, and in their heeding of the convincing arguments 
as to the great economical waste resulting from the poorer 
growth of animals infested with parasites, either internal or 
external, and the lessened amount of their products. 

The most prevalent parasitic condition which the Division 
has to deal with is that known as mange, which affects large 
numbers of cattle during certain seasons, and is also found 
prevailing to some extent among horses. While we have re- 
ceived reports of 421 head of cattle affected on 16 different 
premises, we know that this number is no indication of the 
number of animals infested, for the reason that many cattle 
owners do not take the trouble to report their cases. 

Many owners also do not trouble to treat their animals, 
but successful treatment is possible if owners or attendants 
will faithfully carry out the local application of proper medic- 
inal remedies. Treatment is not expensive, but is very in- 
convenient of application. 

It is our custom to quarantine reported cases, if the animals 
are kept under conditions favorable to spread of the infesta- 
tion, and particularly where owners or attendants cannot be 
depended upon to properly apply treatment. An increasing 
number of owners, however, now realize that it really pays 
to do everything possible to rid their animals of these para- 
sites. 

Thirty cases of the disease in horses have been reported 
during the year, from 5 different premises. Quarantined in- 
fested horses are generally allowed to work during treatment, 
but are forbidden to enter enclosures other than their own 
stables. Seven of the horse cases were detected on the ar- 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 

rival of the animals from another State, and were at once 
quarantined. In one stable where infested horses and cattle 
were found, 3 dogs and 6 cats were also victims of these 
parasites. 

Among the parasitic diseases met with is what is called 
"nodular disease" in sheep, not often fatal but greatly in- 
hibiting the growth of the animals, especially the lambs. 

Stomach worms were found to be the cause of the death of 
75 sheep out of a flock of 100. 

Foot-and-mouth Disease. — This disease fortunately has not 
appeared in Massachusetts during the past four years, although 
it has been reported from two different towns this year. 
Prompt investigation of these reports proved them to be un- 
founded. The disease has prevailed to an alarming extent in 
many foreign countries during the past year, and we have 
therefore considered the possibility of its appearance at any 
time in this country. The Federal authorities are carefully 
watching the situation and have formulated plans for im- 
mediate control work if the emergency occurs. In Massa- 
chusetts all Division veterinarians, inspectors of animals, and 
private veterinarians have been notified of the danger and 
asked to be constantly on the watch, and to promptly report 
any suspicious cases in order that they may be immediately 
investigated, and measures taken to at once prevent the spread 
of the disease. In one reported instance this year, occurring 
in a herd of 16 cattle, the symptoms shown by 2 animals 
sufficiently resembled foot-and-mouth disease to render it de- 
sirable to make inoculation of susceptible animals in order to 
arrive at a positive diagnosis. The inoculations all proved 
negative to this disease. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. — This disease has not as yet 
been especially designated as reportable by notification to 
cattle owners, inspectors of animals or veterinarians. Until 
additional knowledge pointing to the control of this scourge 
has been gained, whereby strictly official control methods 
would appear to be advisable, the functions of the Division 
officials must necessarily be limited to the giving of advice 
as to the general management of infected herds, and how to 
carry out the various sanitary measures recognized as essential 



52 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

to progress in control of the disease. Without doubt its 
prevalence is quite extensive and its ravages are well known to 
every one engaged in dairying or breeding of thoroughbreds. 
The losses occasioned by it and by its many concurrent con- 
ditions are estimated to be second only to the losses from 
tuberculosis. It does not, however, seem advisable for the 
Division to enter the field of specific treatment of infected 
herds or individual animals, work which can probably be more 
satisfactorily attended to by the private veterinarian. 

Other Infectious Diseases. — Twenty-two cases of tubercu- 
losis in swine have been reported this year from 9 different 
towns. Undoubtedly this disease is more prevalent than these 
reports indicate; most of our reports come from slaughter 
houses where the disease is found at time of slaughter, and 
where the inspectors of slaughtering are interested to furnish 
us the information. As a tuberculous hog generally indicates 
tuberculous cattle as the source of the disease, it is our cus- 
tom to examine all cattle on the premises from which the 
diseased hog comes. 

Contagious disease of the eyes was reported as affecting an 
entire herd of 20 cattle on one farm. In a herd of 30 sheep, 
9 were found also to have a contagious disease affecting their 
eyes. 

Infectious pneumonia was reported in a lot of 10 cows, one 
of which died. Fourteen horses were affected with a con- 
tagious form of pneumonia in a stable of 100 animals, and 
4 deaths occurred. 



The Division has frequently been called upon to make ex- 
amination of animals suspected of being affected with a con- 
tagious disease, and where it has been found that the animals 
were suffering from a disease not of a contagious nature. 
Among such instances the following may be mentioned : — 

Twenty-three horses were taken suddenly sick immediately 
after being fed from a new consignment of oats, and 4 deaths 
occurred. Subsequent investigation showed that the car in 
which the oats were transported had contained castor beans 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53 

as the previous shipment, and this was probably the cause of 
the fatalities. 

Forage poisoning caused the death of 3 cattle in Princeton, 
5 in Middleborough, 5 in Wakefield, 3 horses in Hingham, 8 
in Taunton, and 1 in Cohasset. Poison, the nature of which 
was not determined, caused the death of 6 dogs in Oak Bluffs, 
1 cow in Rutland, 2 horses in Lenox, and 3 swine in Matta- 
poisett. 

Other cases, in small numbers, were foot rot in cattle, en- 
teritis, milk fever, paralysis of throat, cancerous growth, 
white scours, and malnutrition. 

Laboratory Examinations. 

Laboratory service is a necessary and important adjunct to 
successful work of any organization charged with the control 
and eradication of contagious disease among animals. It hap- 
pens in many instances in the Division's work that a diagnosis 
cannot be positively made from the clinical symptoms shown 
by the animals, and as all the subsequent work in a case is 
formulated from the starting point of a correct diagnosis, the 
aid of the laboratory at this point becomes quite important. 

The Division is most fortunate in having at its request the 
service of the bacteriological laboratory of the State Depart- 
ment of Public Health. Its service in our behalf has been most 
satisfactorily attended to, our entire work for the year having 
been efficiently and promptly performed. 

The most important service has been the examination of 
the brains of 163 animals submitted because suspected of 
rabies, and in such cases a prompt and positive conclusion as 
to the existence or non-existence of the infection is necessary, 
especially so if persons have been bitten by the suspected 
animal. 

Two hundred and twenty samples of blood taken from 
horses in our work of glanders control have been tested. In 
addition to these principal services, 56 specimens were ex- 
amined, listed below by diseases suspected: — 



54 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Negative. 




Anthrax, 

Fatty degeneration, . 

Glanders, 

Hemorrhagic septicemia, 

Hodgkins disease, 

Intestinal parasites, . 

Nodular disease, 

Pneumonia, 

Poisoning, . 

Ringworm, 

Tuberculosis, 

Tumor, . . 



Specimens too decomposed for diagnosis, 



Ten of the 21 specimens listed under anthrax were also ex- 
amined for hemorrhagic septicemia, to which they were nega- 
tive. One was also examined for blackleg and found to be 
negative. In addition to the above, 56 samples of blood from 
cows on 3 different farms were submitted for examination for 
bovine infectious abortion, 17 of which proved positive, 34 
negative, and 5 questionable. One specimen which was re- 
corded as positive for pneumonia was also examined for hem- 
orrhagic septicemia. Two specimens were received in so de- 
composed a state as to make laboratory diagnosis impossible. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

On receipt of the inspectors' reports in the Division's office 
they are carefully gone over, and the information which they 
contain is classified and tabulated in a way convenient for 
reference. 

From this tabulation a fairly correct and comprehensive sur- 
vey may be drawn of the general health conditions of the live 
stock on the farms of the State and the sanitary conditions 
under which they are kept. Its study is of value when formu- 
lating our general policies for disease control work and for the 
betterment of stable conditions: 

Inspectors' reports also furnish the only correct "census" 
which is made of farm animals in the State, and in that con- 
nection are of interest and value not only to the Division and 
the Department of Conservation but to other State depart- 
ments, also to individuals and associations interested in the 
breeding and raising of live stock, or engaged in any of the 
many lines of business closely related thereto. 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



55 



In many instances cases of contagious disease not previously 
reported are found. Such are immediately quarantined and 
brought to the notice of Division officials and an important 
work in disease control is executed. 

In many other instances unhealthful stabling conditions are 
brought to the attention of owners, and recommendations for 
improvement are suggested and insisted upon. If these are 
not attended to within a reasonable length of time, the cases 
are brought to the attention of Division officials who, either 
through the district veterinary inspector or through corre- 
spondence direct with the owner, endeavor to have them car- 
ried out. District veterinary inspectors have during the past 
year made 968 visits to premises where unsanitary conditions 
existed, and in a majority of instances full or partial cor- 
rection of them has resulted. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the annual inspection made 
by the local inspectors in cities and towns is a valuable aid 
to proper execution of the work imposed by law upon the 
Division of Animal Industry. 

A gross tabulation of the reports of this year's inspection by 
local inspectors of animals follows: — 



Total number of herds of cattle inspected, . 
Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows, . 
Number of neat cattle inspected, .... 

Number of dairy cows inspected, 

Number of herds found clean and in good condition, . 
Number of stables inspected, . . . ... 

Number of stables properly drained, 

Number of stables well ventilated, 

Number of stables sufficiently lighted, 

Number of stables found clean, 

Number of stables in which improvements were recommended 
Number of herds of swine inspected, . . . . ' . 

Number of swine inspected, 

Number of herds of swine garbage-fed, 

Number of swine garbage-fed, 

Number of sheep inspected, 

Number of goats inspected, 



30,039 

21,677 

226,800 

154,407 

28,928 

30,746 

30,538 

30,340 

30,031 

29,422 

821 

14,692 

100,982 

2,844 

52,219 

17,002 

1,360 



The annual inspection from which the above tabulation was 
made took place during the spring months of 1920. Compar- 



56 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

ing the statistics with those of the year previous we find the 
following interesting fact : — 

While the total number of bovine animals of all ages shows 
a decrease of 3,391, yet the number of dairy cows shows an 
unusual increase this year of 3,814. From a strictly dairy 
point of view this is cause for congratulation. It places the 
number of dairy cows in the State, 154,407, at a higher point 
than at any time since 1913, and shows it to be rapidly getting 
back toward the average number for the past seventeen years, 
namely, 158,778. 

In connection with the references made to the statistics 
gathered by local inspectors of cities and towns, and the 
many ways in which such statistics are of value as well as 
of extreme interest, the importance of inspectors' services, of 
varied character, in connection with sudden outbreaks of con- 
tagious disease, such as rabies, should be mentioned; also their 
work in identification and release of animals shipped from other 
States. These officials are a very necessary part of our or- 
ganization, and according as they are observant, prompt to 
act, and faithful in performance of their duties, render the 
Division valuable aid in the execution of its work in control 
and eradication of disease. 

The fact of the statistics showing this year a decrease in 
the number of swine has been commented upon under the 
section referring to contagious diseases of that species. We 
predict that when market conditions again approach the 
normal there will be a substantial increase in the number of 
these animals. 

The number of sheep in the State has decreased somewhat, 
undoubtedly influenced, as with swine, by the prevailing high 
prices of fodder and the low prices of marketed carcasses 
used for food. 

Meetings of inspectors were called at different points in the 
State, as follows: Pittsfield, November 10; Springfield, No- 
vember 11; Greenfield, November 12; Worcester, November 
16; Boston, November 17. 

At these meetings matters of especial interest to the in- 
spectors were discussed, such as general live-stock conditions, 
the prevalence of contagious diseases among the several species 
of farm animals, the increasing prevalence of rabies in dogs 



1921.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



57 



and the necessity for prompt control methods in all outbreaks 
reported. 

A question box was instituted at each meeting, and a new 
feature this year was the illustration by means of lantern 
slides of a talk on bovine tuberculosis. Charts, showing the 
yearly progress of the Division's activities in control work of 
different diseases, were also shown. 



Reports of Rendering Companies. 

Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- 
panies to report to this Division every animal received by 
them which is found to be infected with a contagious disease, 
and the information thus furnished is of value in bringing to 
the attention of the Division occasional cases of these diseases 
which otherwise would not be known. A table of reports of 
rendering companies follows : — 









'o 


"o 


*o 


O CD 


"3 o^ 




co 


co 

CD 


CO 

CD 


co 
CD 


0J y. 


O CD 

« rt"E 
to a 




O 


CO 


CO 


co .A 


co , CD 


CO 2 




a 


03 


<S . 


03.2 


<3"8-£ 


os a 




cd 


O 


Q.co 
'co 




Ogc3 
a 


03 k. 


Rendering Companies. 


o 


O to 


°3 


u o 


«*h CD 
O CO (h 






<D 




-9-2 


ber 

mde 

usly 


ber 

berc 
viou 




a 


3D 


3 EH 




S-3 o 






£ 


£ 


fc 


£ 


fc 


fc 


Ayer Rendering Company, 


4 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


Edwin G. Baker & Son, Providence, 


1 


1 


_ 


_ 






R.I. 














C. S. Bard, Haverhill, .... 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


2 


Boston Rendering Company, Saugus, 


3 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


J. H. Castle, Taunton, 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Home Soap Company, Millbury, 


12 


2 


21 


- 


2 


5 


Lowell Rendering Company, 


11 


1 


18 


- 


1 


2 


James E. McGovern, Andover, . 


3 


- 


3 


- 


- 


1 


New England Rendering Company, 


9 


8 


4 


_ 




2 


Brighton. 














Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Com- 


5 


- 


11 


_ 


_ 


_ 


pany, Peabody. 














N. Roy, Jr., Fall River, 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


N . Roy & Son, South Attleborough, . 


3 


- 


4 


- 


- 


- 


Springfield Rendering Company, 


4 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


N. Ward Company, Boston, 


4 


3 


- 


1 


- 


- 




64 


24 


69 


l 


3 


12 



Note. — All the above cases are included in statistics occurring elsewhere in this report. 



58 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Receipts of Live Stock at the Stockyards in Boston 
and Vicinity for Twelve Months ending Nov. 30, 
1920. 

For several years, at the request of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of 
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each 
month. The following table shows the receipts by months 
for the past year : — 



For Month op — 

December, . 
January, . . 
February, . 
March, 

April, .... 
May, . . . . 
June, .... 
July, .... 
August, 
September, . 
October, 
November, . 
Totals, 



Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


11,169 


13,388 


20,482 


88,062 


8,733 


10,793 


8,674 


132,816 


7,526 


12,602 


4,502 


97,221 


9,062 


21,154 


5,922 


102,367 


8,280 


20,011 


3,447 


52,517 


6,243 


20,879 


11,361 


72,139 


8,135 


19,196 


25,4'48 


119,243 


5,815 


12,547 


22,510 


78,977 


9,151 


15,746 


37,732 


59,568 


7,603 


12,219 


34,071 


43,930 


10,694 


18,226 


36,954 


44,888 


16,261 


19,411 


48,867 


81,132 


108,872 


196,172 


259,970 


972,860 



Horses. 



675 

923 

546 

1,051 

1,180 

1,120 

1,667 

1,548 

2,189 

1,470 

844 

994 



14,207 



Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 225, Acts of 1920, 
Expended during the year for the salary of the Director, . 

Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenogra- 
phers, chapter 225, Acts of 1920, . . . . $7,900 00 
Supplementary appropriation, chapter 629, Acts of 1920, 650 00 

Total amount appropriated, 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers, . . . $7,420 59 
Extra clerical and stenographic service, .... 240 59 

Total expenditure, ........ $7,661 18 

Unexpended balance, . . - 888 82 



53,500 00 
3,500 00 



*,550 00 



S,550 00 



1921.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 59 

Appropriation for services other than personal, including 
printing the annual report, traveling expenses of the 
Director, and office supplies and equipment, chapter 

225, Acts of 1920, $4,400 00 

Brought forward from 1919 appropriation, ... 95 93 

Total amount appropriated, . . $4,495 93 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books and maps, . $96 60 

Express and messenger service, . . . ' . . . 230 35 

Postage 631 21 

Printing report, ■ . . . . 181 19 

Other printing, . . . 809 95 

Telephone and telegrams, . 601 35 

Stationery and office supplies, 686 36 

Typewriter, 58 15 

Expenses of the Director, ... . . . . 531 23 

Total expenditure, . . . ... . . $3,826 39 

Unexpended balance, 669 54 



$4,495 93 

Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 
agents engaged in the work of extermination of con- 
tagious diseases among domestic animals, chapter 

225, Acts of 1920, . . . $50,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Services of regular agents, $33,521 81 

Services of -per diem agents, . . . ... . 9,059 00 

Labor hired, 104 00 

Total expenditure, $42,684 81 

Unexpended balance, - . . . 7,315 19 

$50,000 00 



Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterina- 
rians and agents, chapter 225, Acts of 1920, $24,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Traveling expenses of regular agents, $13,789 75 

Traveling expenses of per diem agents, .... 4,546 42 



Total expenditure, $18,336 17 

Unexpended balance, 5,663 83 



$24,000 00 



Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle and 

horses killed, travel, when allowed, of inspectors 

of animals, incidental expenses of killing and 

burial, quarantine and emergency services, and for 

laboratory and veterinary supplies and equipment, 

chapter 225, Acts of 1920, $55,000 00 

Brought forward from 1919 appropriation, . . . 1,322 30 

Total amount appropriated, $56,322 30 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 
1,016 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 

tuberculosis in 1918, 1919, 1920, paid for in 1920, . $42,609 50 
26 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 
and farcy in 1919 and 1920, paid for in 1920, . . 1,375 00 



60 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 1921. 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors, . . . . . $432 13 

Laundry, . '. . 376 78 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants, .... 469 70 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc., .... 775 25 

Ear-tags, punches, chains, etc., . . . . . . 553 50 

Expenses of killing and burial, . .' . '' . . 82 90 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals, . . 587 95 

Quarantine expenses, ........ 62 25 

Rent of quarantine office, . . . . . . . 120 00 

Sundries, 97 95 



Total expenditures, ....... $47,542 91 

Unexpended balance, 8,779 39 



,322 30 



The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle 
this year is $40.64. 

During that portion of the year (eight and one-half months) 
in which the maximum amount payable by the Commonwealth 
for any one animal was fixed at $40, the average price paid 
was $37.91. For the remaining three and one-half months of 
the year during which the maximum amount of $60 per animal 
was available, the average amount awarded was $44.90, an 
increase of $7. The numbers of cattle condemned, however, 
in this latter period increased more than 90 per cent. 

Two hundred and forty-eight claims for reimbursement for 
cattle condemned and killed as tuberculous during the year, 
amounting to $10,314.50, remain unsettled, to be paid for on 
proof. 

Claims applying to 5 horses condemned and killed during 
the year because affected with glanders remain unsettled, the 
claims not having been proved. The amount of these claims 
is $250. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $523.05, and for 
the testing of cattle for non-resident owners $16.75, a total 
amount of $539.80. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Director. 



Public Document 



No. 98 



Cfte Commontoealtft of sgaggactmsetts 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1921 



Department of Conservation 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATEjPRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



Cjje Commontoealtj) of QfiassathMttts 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 



Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Nov. 30, 1921. 

To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

I have the honor to present the following report of the work 
of this Division for the year ending Nov. 30, 1921. 

The functions of the Division of Animal Industry and the 
duties of its officials may be described as follows: Inspection 
and examination of horses, cattle, sheep and swine within the 
Commonwealth, and of the conditions under which they are 
kept; the execution of measures in prevention, control or cure 
of contagious disease among them and the other species of 
domestic animals; the slaughter when necessary of such as are 
affected with, or have been exposed to, contagious disease, to 
be followed by the burial or other disposal of their carcasses; 
the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or places 
where contagion exists or has existed. Another duty is the 
regulation of the transportation of horses, cattle, sheep and 
swine from other States to Massachusetts, in order that their 
condition of health may be established and no prevalence of 
contagious disease be caused by their entry. This regulatory 
work calls for the inspection and mallein testing of many 
horses, and the examination and tuberculin testing of such 
cattle as are to be used for dairy or breeding purposes and are 
not accompanied by satisfactory records of test. Tuberculin 
tests of cattle of whatever age moving interstate must have 
been made by veterinarians authorized by State and Federal 
officials to do this work, and, if regulations have not been com- 
plied with in all particulars, their violation must be investigated 
and proper tests applied by Division inspectors. 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The maintenance of the health of the several species of 
domestic animals is of great importance for many reasons. 
It adds to the food supply of the people, bettering its quality. 
It materially increases the financial returns from the many 
lines of business with which the live-stock industry is insepa- 
rably connected. The important industry of dairying, to be 
financially successful, must produce large amounts of milk, 
butter and cheese, and to this result healthy animals are a first 
and prime requisite. The conservation of the health of all the 
species of animals whose carcasses are used for human food — 
cattle, sheep and swine — is necessary for their successful prop- 
agation and their raising to maturity or to the point where 
they are available as human food. Numbers are largely 
increased and growth is more rapid if they can be kept free 
from contagious disease. Not only is their money value as food 
animals enhanced, but the quality and amount of their com- 
mercial by-products, such as hides, wool, fat, fertilizer, and 
many other salable ones, are much greater than from animals 
stunted in growth or reduced in numbers by prevalence of 
disease. 

Preservation of the health of the people is dependent in no 
small degree upon the elimination from animals of those diseases 
which are communicable to the human subject. Glanders, 
tuberculosis, rabies, anthrax and actinomycosis carry a high 
rate of mortality in man, and a diseased animal is often found 
to be the source of the contagion. For this reason also it is 
important that this class of diseases be prevented, controlled 
or, if possible, eradicated from the animal kingdom. 

Agriculture in very many of its branches is so dependent 
upon successful live-stock raising, and prospers in such a direct 
ratio to the numbers of animals produced and maintained on 
the farm, that there is no question as to the superior economy 
in raising and maintaining healthy animals only. Satisfactory 
revenue from the investment in our farm animals of time, labor 
and capital can only be returned by horses, cattle, sheep and 
swine which are sound and not inhibited in their propagation, 
growth and economical use by contagious disease. 

In considering the work of this Division of the Department 
of Conservation, and in argument that it is important as a 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

public function, we call attention to the fact that each succeed- 
ing year there is manifested an increased dependence of the 
public for food material upon domestic animals, as represented 
not only by dairy products but by the meat value of the car- 
casses of cattle, sheep and swine. That these carcasses may be 
found fit for human food at the time they are converted to that 
use, it is necessary that the animals shall have been raised under 
proper sanitary conditions, and maintained free of contagious 
disease up to that time. The carcasses of thousands of animals 
are yearly condemned in the country as a whole on account of 
lesions of contagious disease being found at time of slaughter. 
It is an economic necessity of the State and Nation that this 
great waste be reduced to a lower point than has yet been 
reached. Although progress in this direction is yearly advanc- 
ing through the active co-operation of Federal, State and munic- 
ipal authorities to this end, the Division of Animal Industry 
recognizes that its work of elimination of animal diseases has a 
broad field for expansion, and that its duty in relation to an 
increased food supply for the people is well defined. 

The following report consists of a brief summary of this 
year's work of this Division, illustrated by charts showing the 
control work of recent years of some of the principal conta- 
gious diseases of animals. These charts will probably be of 
considerable interest to those who have been familiar with the 
workings of our organization during a period of years. They 
show the number of cases we have had to deal with, and the 
working out of policies that have been pursued, with such 
occasional variations as seemed advisable, for a considerable 
length of time. 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Division 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1921 : — 

Cattle. 
31,892 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by inspectors. 
2,995 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veteri- 
narians. 
3,507 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 
8,518 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test 

records viseed. 
5,442 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other points. 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

1,137 animals on 164 farms in 51 towns were given preventive treatment 
against blackleg. 
94 animals on 8 farms in 4 towns were given preventive treatment 

against anthrax. 
137 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 
1,294 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses. 

206 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 
4,382 interstate horses were examined by inspectors. 

5 tests of whole stables were made by Division veterinarians. 

Dogs. 
959 cases of possible rabies in dogs were investigated. 

Swine. 

54,346 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 
10,580 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

299 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division 
veterinarians. 



Bovine Tuberculosis. 

This disease, widely prevalent, existing in all sections of the 
world where cattle are raised, and recorded in Massachusetts 
statistics for at least forty years, continues to be the greatest 
disease control problem of our time. All owners of cattle suffer 
financial loss from its ravages, whether their business is the 
raising of dairy products, the production and marketing of 
cattle for food purposes, or the propagation and sale of pure- 
bred animals as foundation stock for the establishment of new 
herds and for raising the quality of those composed of grade 
animals. 

On account of the large number of carcasses and parts of 
carcasses condemned as unfit for human food because of the 
extent of tuberculous lesions found therein, the disease operates 
as a large factor in raising the price of beef and dairy products 
to the consumer. In fact, the significance of this great waste 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

of good food products was the original basis of the appeal by 
the live-stock industry of North America to the Federal gov- 
ernment to inaugurate a campaign for its elimination. 

The possibility of infection of the human subject from animal 
sources of the disease, now recognized as a well-established fact 
in many instances of tuberculous children, should be referred 
to as sufficient reason in itself for continuous study of any and 
all methods of control which promise any degree of success. 

The major part of the yearly expenditures of the Division of 
Animal Industry is applied in indemnification of owners as 
reimbursement for cattle condemned and killed because affected 
with tuberculosis, as disclosed by physical examination. The 
expense incurred in carrying on this work is also one of our 
largest items and is gradually mounting from year to year, as 
the increased number of cases brought to light by improved 
methods of detection, and influenced by market conditions, calls 
for official action in their disposal. It cannot be said that a 
larger percentage of our herds is infected than formerly, or that 
the disease exists in a more virulent or active form than usual. 
On the other hand, many observers contend that there is a 
very marked improvement in this direction, and that the 
larger number of cases now brought to official attention is the 
result of more intelligent and skillful observation and of closer 
attention to the well-recognized necessity of promptly ridding 
the herds of their infected members. 

During the year the local market for slaughter cattle, car- 
casses and by-products has been so low that an owner having 
animals which under ordinary market conditions he would 
send to the butcher when for any reason found not profitable 
to keep has not so disposed of them because of the small 
amount of money returns from their sale. He has turned to 
the prospect of a more satisfactory disposal of his cattle through 
condemnation of them by State officials as cases of tuber- 
culosis. It very frequently is the case that the worn-out cow, 
or the one unthrifty or for any reason unprofitable, is a physical 
case of tuberculosis. Such a case if brought to official notice 
must be condemned in accordance with the law, and, if so con- 
demned, operating to the owner's financial advantage is the 
present indemnity paid by the State, which indemnity was in- 



8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

creased 50 per cent, effective Aug. 18, 1920. The owner 
therefore submits the animal to our Division for examination. 
If not found to be diseased, he still has left the sale for 
slaughter; but if condemned, the money returns are bound to 
be more satisfactory than from sale. Division inspectors are 
all instructed to be absolutely fair to "citizens of the Common- 
wealth when making appraisal of animals. On the other hand, 
there is much evidence that the cattle buyer, or the packing 
house official, is not always actuated by a similar spirit. 

As a result of these conditions we have this year officially 
condemned very many animals which, under the former con- 
ditions of a good beef market on the one hand and a lower 
State indemnity on the other, would have been sent to slaughter 
without official attention having been called to them. It is 
probable that the appropriation to this Division for carrying 
out the law applying to the disposal of tuberculous cattle will 
have to be maintained at its present size or increased, at least 
while market conditions remain so unfavorable to the seller of 
animals fit for slaughter only, or unless the amount of in- 
demnity be reduced in its maximum by amendment of the law 
now applying to such cases. 

For thirty years the regulatory live-stock officials of Massa- 
chusetts have carried out such measures in the control of 
bovine tuberculosis as were authorized by law, supplementing 
them by regulations which seemed applicable to the conditions 
which from time to time arose. These measures have un- 
doubtedly resulted in limiting the prevalence of the disease 
and controlling its spread, but it is probably true that its ulti- 
mate eradication cannot be hoped for so long as tuberculous 
animals remain in a herd until they show clinical symptoms 
sufficiently well marked to arouse the suspicion of the owner 
or of the inspectors of animals. 

The diagnostic value of the tuberculin test carefully applied 
and interpreted by competent veterinarians is very generally 
recognized, and should be taken advantage of at every op- 
portunity for the purpose of disclosing the non-clinical cases. 
Without its aid satisfactory control of the prevalence of 
tuberculosis among our cattle is not possible. The application 
of official tests at request of cattle owners shows a steady 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 

increase each succeeding year, but the number of animals so 
tested is such a small percentage of the total number in the 
State that as yet no appreciable effect on eradication is to be 
noticed. 

If it were practicable under our present laws to pay indem- 
nity for cattle which reacted to an official tuberculin test, very 
many owners would seek its application, and some real progress 
in eradication of this great plague would be accomplished. 

The Division is giving its support to the Federal movement 
in eradication of bovine tuberculosis, and co-operating with 
national authorities in this work to the fullest extent possible 
under existing law. The most prominent feature of the Fed- 
eral movement is the "tuberculosis-free accredited herd" plan, 
upon which plan the movement largely depends for its indorse- 
ment by the cattle-owning public. Under this plan certain in- 
demnity is paid for reacting cattle which are slaughtered, the 
owners of which have submitted their herds for official tests 
applied under Federal and State supervision. This payment of 
Federal indemnity, however, is contingent upon a like in- 
demnity being paid by the State wherein the cattle are owned. 
Under existing Massachusetts law, indemnity is paid by the 
Commonwealth only for cattle which are condemned by Di- 
vision officials, such condemnation occurring as a result of 
physical examination. As the majority of cattle reacting to a 
tuberculin test are not cases that can be readily condemned by 
physical examination, indemnity for such reactors is not paid by 
the State, and for that reason alone no Federal indemnity is 
available. The Massachusetts cattle owner, therefore, who de- 
sires to eradicate tuberculosis from his herd by slaughter of 
the reactors to an official test, finds himself denied both State 
and Federal indemnity as partial reimbursement for his losses, 
and consequently the work of eradication by the " tuberculosis- 
free accredited herd" plan has not progressed in this State to 
the extent it has in most other States of the Union, or to the 
extent it would if our laws were more favorable to its progress. 
In forty-seven States full co-operative action by the two govern- 
ments is functioning satisfactorily, and nearly ten thousand 
herds have already been declared free from tuberculosis. 

Believing that advantage should be taken of every factor 



10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

which promises to be of any assistance in the eradication of this 
scourge from Massachusetts live stock, it is to be regretted that 
the recommendations of the commission, appointed by His 
Excellency the Governor in 1919 to study the tuberculosis 
situation, were not favorably acted upon by the Legislatures of 
1920 and 1921. These recommendations suggested an amend- 
ment to our laws providing for payment, under proper regu- 
lation, to owners of cattle whose animals were killed on account 
of having reacted to tuberculin tests applied under official 
supervision. We are still of the opinion that an active cam- 
paign against bovine tuberculosis, made more workable by an 
amendment to existing statutes, is what is greatly needed for 
relief of the situation in this State. 

A public work of this sort means the expenditure of a con- 
siderable amount of money by the Commonwealth, but con- 
sidering that such expenditure would command the award of a 
like amount by the national government, and that these com- 
bined indemnities w T ould make the official tuberculin test 
popular, the result would undoubtedly be the "cleaning up" of 
many infected herds. Ultimately as the work of testing in- 
creased the effect would be to so reduce the prevalence of the 
disease that the large annual appropriation now necessary to 
combat it would be very much reduced. 

Following is a chart showing for a period of twenty years 
the number of cases reported to this Division and the number 
actually found diseased as proved by post-mortem examination, 
with marginal notes stating the methods of disposal. 

This year's tabulation, as shown in the opposite chart, 
probably more nearly approaches a correct record of the preva- 
lence of tuberculosis in our herds than that of any other one 
year. In addition to a diligent search for" clinical cases as 
formerly, and the bringing to our attention of many more 
cases by the operation of the amended law increasing the 
indemnity payable by the Commonwealth, the tuberculin test 
reactors appear this year as a greater factor than ever before 
in our statistics. These show an increase in the number of 
positively diseased animals killed as reactors to State and 
private tests of nearly 40 per cent. 

Comparing the last four years' records, we find the percent- 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



11 




12 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



age of reactors to total number killed, as follows: 1918. 
23.5 per cent; 1919, 28.1 per cent; 1920, 33.4 per cent; 1921, 
30 per cent. In other words, nearly one-third of all the tuber- 
culous cattle killed under our supervision this year were reac- 
tors to a tuberculin test and killed for that reason. Very few 
of these cases could have been detected by physical examina- 
tion. 

Following are various tables showing the extent of the work 
of the Division in connection with the control of bovine tuber- 
culosis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 1921: — 



Massachusetts Cattle. 

Cattle reported as diseased in 1920 disposed of in 1921 . 24 
Cattle reported as diseased during the year . . . 3,032 

Disposal of Above Animals. 



3,056 





G 
G 
O 

03 

a 

.2 
'55 


03 

g 

.2 
'53 

CD 

o 

^ s 

0> G 
~ O 


«3 

G 
o 
'53 



Ph 


o 
Z 

o 

G 
jO 

'a'tc 
G a> 

0; ^h 
Ph 


Ol 

5 


T5 

Ol 
03 

c8 

0> 

Ph 


a> 

,— i 

o 

+;> 

*a 

u 

a 

u 
o 

fa 


02 

Is 
o 
H 


Reported by inspectors, owners, etc. . 
Reacted to Division tests . . 
Reacted to private tests .... 
Reacted to United States tests . 


1,686 
56 


30 


75 
343 
245 
113 


33 
36 
23 
11 


75 
2 


319 


7 
2 


2,225 
379 
328 
124 


Totals 


1,742 


30 


776 


103 


77 


319 


9 


3,056 



The preceding table shows the disposal of Massachusetts 
cattle suspected of tuberculosis and reported from all different 
sources. 

Following is a tabulation of tuberculin tests only, made by 
Division inspectors, reported by private veterinarians, and by 
inspectors of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. 
It shows also the disposal of such reactors as came under the 
jurisdiction of the Division and such as could be arranged for 
by consultation with owners: — 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 



Department Tests. 1920. 1921. 

Premises on which tests were made 37 59 

Number of animals tested . . . . . . . 1,924 2,995 

Number of reactors • . 496 1,005 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Killed, lesions found 289 

Killed, no lesions found 36 

Awaiting action 680 

Note. — In addition to above, 54 animals which reacted in 1920 were 
killed in 1921, in which lesions were found. 

Tests reported by Private Veterinarians. 1920. 1921. 

Number of herds in which animals were reported . . 153 162 

Number of animals tested 3,631 2,740 

Number of reactors . 758 741 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Condemned on physical examination ...... 56 

Killed, lesions found 175 

Killed, no lesions found - . . 23 

Showing no physical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of 

disposal 485 

Awaiting action 2 

Note. — In addition, 70 animals reacting to test made in 1920 were 
killed and lesions found. 

Tests reported by United States Bureau of Animal Industry. 

Number of Massachusetts animals tested 8,589 

Number of reactors 273 

The tables show only a small increase from last year of the 
total number of cattle tested by Division inspectors and re- 
ported by private veterinarians. The figures are correct as to 
the Division tests, but undoubtedly many tests have been made 
by private veterinarians which have not been reported. 

The significance of the figures is an increase this year of the 
percentage of reactors found in State tests from 25.5 per 
cent to 33 per cent, and in private tests from 22 to 27 per cent. 
This may possibly be due to the more general use of the oph- 
thalmic and intradermic methods in place of, or in combina- 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

tion with, the subcutaneous method. Each of the three meth- 
ods now in use occasionally discloses cases which fail to react 
to either of the others. 

The record of tests made by the United States Bureau of 
Animal Industry inspectors should be especially noted. It 
shows a very low percentage (about 3 per cent) of reactors, 
due to the fact that many of the herds are composed of pure- 
bred animals under their constant supervision, regularly tested 
once or twice a year, and from which the reactors have been 
immediately removed. By these methods the disease has been 
partially or completely eradicated, and such of the herds as 
are not already accredited are well on the way thereto. 

The Federal Bureau's work in this State constitutes a good 
example of the possibilities of tuberculosis eradication by appli- 
cation of the tuberculin test under proper supervision. 

During the year Division and local inspectors have physically 
examined 2,517 herds, comprising 31,892 cattle. Much of this 
was "follow up" work at premises classified as infected because 
of the existence of one or more recent cases of tuberculosis. 
The number of herds and cattle examined is practically double 
that of the year 1920. It does not include any portion of the 
regular annual inspection of all herds by local inspectors. 

Interstate Cattle. 

In accordance with present regulations of the Federal govern- 
ment, all dairy or breeding cattle of whatever age shipped 
interstate must have passed a tuberculin test applied by veteri- 
narians approved by the live-stock officials of the State where 
tested and by the chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

A modification of this regulation is applicable, however, 
to cattle shipped to so-called "public stockyards" which are 
under the supervision of Bureau officials and where the animals 
can be tested upon arrival. On July 1, 1919, the Brighton 
cattle market was designated as "public stockyards," and such 
of the dairy or breeding cattle in the weekly shipments to that 
point as have not been tested before shipment are tested by 
inspectors of the Bureau of Animal Industry and of this 
Division working in co-operation. Check tests are also made 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 

from time to time on interstate cattle supposed to have been 
properly tested before shipment, in order that the quality of 
this work done in other States may be determined. 

Additional quarantine stations for receipt of animals for 
Brighton market are maintained at Watertown and Somerville, 
at which points many of the cattle destined for that market 
are unloaded. The protection of Massachusetts cattle interests 
at these points is carefully attended to by our force of inspec- 
tors, and we feel sure that no cattle which can be suspected 
of tuberculosis are released for any purpose except for immedi- 
ate slaughter. 

Brighton stockyards being the only point in the State to 
which untested cattle may be shipped, in strict compliance 
with Federal regulations, our former work of testing at other 
points is reduced to a minimum and consists only of testing 
such animals as may arrive not accompanied by a record of 
tuberculin test. A few violations of the regulations occur, 
some of them through ignorance of Federal and State require- 
ments, and others in willful disregard of them. These latter 
cases are investigated when reported and prosecution in the 
courts is instituted if deemed advisable. 

Following are tabulations showing in detail the interstate 
cattle work of the Division at Brighton and other points : — 

At Brighton Quarantine Station from Dec. 1, 1920, to Nov. 30, 1921. 
Number accepted on approved records of test . . . 8,518 
Number received and tuberculin tested .... 3,374 

11,892 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test . . . 8,518 

Number released on first test 3,037 

Number released on second test 49 

Number released on third test . . . ... . 12 

Number released on fourth test ...... 4 

Number released for slaughter on first test ... 29 

Number released for slaughter on second test ... 13 

Number released for slaughter on third test ... 1 
Number slaughtered on first test, lesions of tuberculosis 

found 179 

Number slaughtered on second test, lesions of tuberculosis 

found 15 



16 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Number slaughtered on third test, lesions of tuberculosis 

found ..'... 1 

Number slaughtered on first test, lesions of tuberculosis 

not found 27 

Number slaughtered on second test, lesions of tuberculosis 

not found , . . 5 

Number slaughtered on third test, lesions of tuberculosis 

not found 1 

Number held awaiting disposal 1 

11,892 

Note. — In addition to above, 2 animals held from last j^ear were 
released, 1 on first test and 1 on second test. 

At Other Points from Dec. 1, 1920, to Nov. 30, 1921. 
Number condemned in 1920 awaiting slaughter in 1921 . 2 

Number held from 1920 awaiting disposal in 1921 . . 13 

Number received during the year . * . . . . . 5,606 

5,621 

Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test . . . 5,442 

Number released on test made after arrival ... . 109 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found . . 20 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found . 3 
Number condemned in 1920, slaughtered in 1921, lesions 

of tuberculosis found 2 

Number condemned awaiting slaughter in 1922 . . 1 
Number condemned on physical examination, lesions of 

tuberculosis found ........ 1 

Number brought in as reactors, killed on " permit to kill," 

lesions of tuberculosis found 2 

Number arrived but not released at close of year . . 41 

5,621 

Summary. 

Total interstate dairy cattle received at Brighton station 11,892 
Total interstate dairy cattle received at other points . 5,621 

17,513 

Origin of the Above Interstate Cattle. 

Vermont . . 4,662 

Maine 5,750 

New Hampshire 4,802 

New York . . . ... . . . . . 2,008 

Connecticut . . . 92 

Rhode Island ■...-.. 59 

Other States and Canada 140 

17,513 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

Animals other than dairy cattle requiring tuberculin test 
received at other points than the quarantine stations may be 
classified as below : — 

Cattle not requiring Tuberculin Test. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter 1,120 

Calves for immediate slaughter 1 ,408 

Dairy calves under six months old .153 

Cattle returned from out-of -State pastures . . . . . 154 

Cattle pastured in the State during the season 113 

Feeder cattle 112 

Lost 2 

Condemned on physical examination 1 

Returned from temporary stay in other States for breeding pur- 
poses, etc 14 

Remaining in State for brief periods only, for breeding purposes, 

etc. 13 

For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions 979 



Total , 4,069 

There are large numbers of cattle and calves from other 
States slaughtered at Haverhill and Springfield, at abattoirs 
which are under Federal inspection, which are not included 
in the statistics of this Division. 

Twenty-nine permits allowing shipment of cattle into the 
State were brought over from 1920 not expired or reported 
upon before close of the year. There were 998 permits issued 
during the year; on 10 of these no report has yet been re- 
ceived. There were 110 instances brought to our attention 
where animals were shipped into the State unaccompanied 
by the permit required by State regulations, covering 384 
head of cattle; 252 of these were accompanied by acceptable 
records of test; 39 were tested by Division veterinarians; 
25 were feeder cattle; 12 were calves under six months of age; 
23 came in for sale or exhibition; 2 were returning from pas- 
ture in another State; 1 remained for a brief period only, and 
30 were immediately slaughtered. These figures are included 
in the statistical tables. 

There were 395 head of cattle tested for shipment into New 
Hampshire for pasture and 82 head tagged only for that 



18 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



purpose, going into other States, also 2 calves reported but not 
tagged. 

At a sale of Ayrshire cattle held in Springfield in June, 
58 head came from other States, 12 of which were sold to re- 
main. At the annual New England Fair held in Worcester in 
September, 195 head from out of the State were exhibited, 
none being sold to remain. 

At the Eastern States Exposition held in Springfield in the 
latter part of September, and a sale of Aberdeen-Angus cattle 
held in connection therewith, 680 head were brought from other 
States, of which number 9 dairy cattle were sold to remain in 
Massachusetts, and 1 was sold for immediate slaughter. There 
was a small number of baby beeves and 76 nurse cows on the 
grounds. Including cattle exhibited by Massachusetts owners, 
there was on the grounds a total of 995 head of cattle. There 
were also 262 sheep, 334 head of swine, and 293 horses. 

The Division keeps records of all animals received at the 
several quarantine stations, also the States from which neat 
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures : — 

Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. 30, 

1921. 

New Hampshire cattle 2,184 

Vermont cattle 4,952 

Calves 26,010 

Sheep and lambs 1,411 

Swine '. . . . . 1,455 



Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1921, 



Maine cattle 

New Hampshire cattle 

Vermont cattle . 

Massachusetts cattle 

Canada cattle 

Western cattle . 

Calves . 

Sheep and lambs 

Swine . 



1,502 

882 

6,047 

928 

495 

14,644! 

96,576 

347,958 

749,700 



1 Including 6,130 intended for export. 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



19 



Receipts of Slock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1921. 
Maine cattle • . 6,358 



New Hampshire cattle 
Vermont cattle . 
Connecticut cattle 
Massachusetts cattle 
New York cattle 
Western cattle . 
Calves . 
Sheep and lambs 
Swine . 



5,739 

3,143 

50 

9,784 

8,620 

52,597 1 

64,304 

7,038 

36,239 



Glanders. 

The prevalence of this disease among the equine species in 
Massachusetts is not only under perfect control at the present 
time but all indications are that it is well on the way to com- 
plete extermination. 

These indications are based on steady, progressive diminu- 
tion in prevalence from year to year since 1913. In that year 
there were destroyed 1,084 glandered horses, 556 of which were 
in the city of Boston, whereas during the year 1921 there have 
been killed 11 affected horses only, 1 of which was in Boston. 
A comparison of the records of these two years shows that the 
loss from this disease at the present time is in the ratio of one 
death to one hundred deaths in 1913. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the prevalence in 1921 has 
been low, and unimportant from a disease control standpoint, 
we believe it necessary to closely watch the situation, and con- 
sequently we still enforce the same regulations as to interstate 
shipments as formerly, and still pursue the same methods in 
handling an outbreak of the disease. 

Although the horse as a necessity in many lines of business 
and as a means of healthful recreation and pleasure has to 
some extent been replaced by motor vehicles, it has been 
conclusively shown that he cannot be entirely dispensed with 
in any of these lines of usefulness. He is now of priceless value 
in the field of preventive medicine, being used in large numbers 
for the manufacture of various biological preparations found 



1 Including 3,765 intended for export. 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

effective in the prevention and cure of many diseases of animals 
and man. He must therefore still be produced in considerable 
numbers, and be maintained free from contagious disease if 
possible. 

The successful methods by which the number of cases of 
glanders has been rapidly reduced in the past few years, and 
which have apparently solved what was formerly a difficult 
problem of disease control, may be briefly referred to as 
follows : — 

Immediate quarantine of all reported cases; prompt killing 
of all clinical cases, followed by disinfection of the premises 
where kept, of the blacksmith shops where shod, and of water- 
ing troughs where they were in the habit of drinking; exam- 
ination and re-examination of all contact animals, together 
with application of the several diagnostic tests when necessary; 
extension of the plan of testing whole stables; closing of public 
watering troughs in sections where an outbreak of the disease 
occurs; testing of all horses and mules shipped interstate from 
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island, unless 
accompanied by satisfactory records of recent tests. 

The records of the Division for the year ending Nov. 30, 
1921, show the following facts: — 

At the end of 1920, 3 horses were under observation. Of 
this number, 1 was condemned, and 2 have been released as 
free from the disease. 

During the past year 96 suspected animals, in addition to 
the 3 mentioned above, have been examined. Of this number, 
7 animals proved to be positive cases and were destroyed in 
accordance with the requirements of the law; 1 was killed by 
its owner, autopsy proving it to have been a case of glanders; 

1 State horse and 1 interstate horse were condemned and 
killed, no lesions of glanders being found on post-mortem 
examination, their full appraised value amounting to $150; 

2 horses died before final diagnosis was made; 83 were re- 
leased as free from the disease; and 1 was still held under 
observation at the end of the year. 

In the so-called "stable tests/' or tests of all animals in 
stables where glanders has been found, 20 horses have been 
tested in 5 stables; among them 1 case of glanders was found. 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 

The above figures are all included in the tabulations which 
follow: — 

Horses reported as Suspected. 

Brought forward from the year 1920 ...... 3 

Reported by Tenderers 1 

Reported by inspectors, humane societies, veterinarians, own- 
ers, etc 94 

Interstate, reported by inspectors ...... 2 

Contact animals examined in stable tests . . . . .20 



Disposal of Above Horses. 

Appraised and killed, positive .... 

Killed by owner, positive 

Reported by renderer, positive .... 



Appraised and killed, no lesions found (1 interstate, 1 State) 
Killed by owner or died, no lesions found .... 
Released as not affected with glanders . . . . . 
Awaiting disposition 



9 




1 




1 






11 




2 




2 




104 




1 



120 



120 



Following is a table giving the number of cases of this disease 
covering a period of twenty-three years. In this table cases 
which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown separately, 
on account of the fact that Boston was for many years the 
storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of the number 
of cases in that city has always been made in order that its 
relative importance to other sections of the State may be 
studied. 



22 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Number of Cases. 





















Cases. 


Year. 


In Boston. 


In Other 
Places. 


Totals 


1899 


159 


384 


543 


1900 . 


















192 


507 


699 


1901 . 


















197 


548 


745 • 


1902 . 


















155 


580 


735 


1903 . 


















250 


610 


860 


1904 . 


















254 


555 


809 


1905 . 


















210 


414 


624 


1906 . 


















194 


376 


570 


1907 . 


















308 


403 


711 


1908 . 


















389 


552 


941 


1909 . 


















278 


406 


684 


1910 . 


















314 


362 


676 


1911 . 


















387 


565 


952 


1912 . 


















395 


446 


841 


1913 . 


















556 


528 


1,084 


1914 . 


















355 


495 


850 


1915 . 


















152 


250 


402 


1916 . 


















157 


278 


435 


1917 . 


















80 


206 


286 


1918 . 


















89 


104 


193 


1919 . 


















4 


19 


23 


1920 . 


















6 


26 


32 


1921 . 


















1 


10 


11 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



23 




24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal 
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations 
in many cities and towns of the State have through their 
agents always been of material aid to the Division in the work 
of controlling this disease. Their close observation of working 
animals of all classes has in the past, when the disease was more 
prevalent, brought to light many showing suspicious symptoms, 
w r hich they have promptly reported to this Division, and many 
of the animals so reported have proved to be positive cases 
of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work and destroying those which, on 
account of extreme age or poor condition, are no longer useful 
has undoubtedly been a factor in the suppression of glanders, 
as such animals are very susceptible to infection. 

The maximum amount, fixed by section 13, chapter 129 of 
the General Laws, which may be paid for any one animal 
condemned and destroyed on account of being affected with 
glanders being $50, the appraised value of the animals con- 
demned is a subject of considerable interest. Of the 11 positive 
cases of glanders occurring during the year, 9 were appraised 
at a total valuation of $1,155, the average amount per animal 
being $128.33. On the remaining 2 animals no appraisal was 
made for the following reasons: 1 of them was reported by a 
renderer and 1 was killed by owner, the disease being found on 
autopsy. 

Of the 9 horses which were appraised, 7 have been paid for, 
the amount paid being $350; and 2 cases are awaiting the 
filing of claims for payment. 

Complement-fixation Test. 

The 3 horses under observation at the end of the year 1920 
were subjected to the complement-fixation test, with the result 
that 1 was condemned and 2 were released as probably free 
from the disease. 

One hundred and twenty-six samples of blood were taken 
from 101 horses during the year 1921, and the following dis- 
posal of the animals was made: — 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



25 



Animals released on first test . 

Released on second test . 

Released on fourth test 

Died or killed by owner after first test 

Condemned on first test . 

Condemned on second test 

Condemned on third test . 

Held for further observation after third test 



80 
11 
2 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 



101 



Ophthalmic-mallein Test. 

This test has been applied to 80 State and 163 interstate 
horses during the year. It happens that the test in some 
instances was repeated on the same animals, and 248 such tests 
have been made. The results are as follows : — 

Tests giving positive reaction 2 

Tests giving no reaction 239 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results . . . . . . . 7 

248 
Interstate Horses. 

Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the 
States of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island must be accompanied by a permit from the Director of 
Animal Industry. This regulation was established on account 
of the prevalence of glanders among the horses of the States 
mentioned, and in order that upon arrival the animals might be 
immediately located and examined by agents of this Division. 

The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these 
States has increased from 4,082 in 1920 to 4,500 in the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1921, the statistics following: — 

Equine Animals from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and 



Rhode Island. 



Mules 
Horses 



Disposal of Above Animals. 
Released upon physical examination .... 
Released upon accompanying papers without examination 

Released after test 

Released in transit to other States 

Suspicious to test, killed, no lesions found 



8 
4,492 



4,218 

114 

163 

4 

1 



4,500 



4,500 



26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

It is worthy of notice that no interstate horses or mules 
were found during the past year to have been affected with 
glanders. Many of the animals brought from the above- 
mentioned States are of the better class, being highly bred 
horses used for carriage work and breeding purposes. The 
secondhand horses, which are trafficked in and sent from the 
markets of one State to those of another for purpose of public 
sale, have been specially watched on account of their being 
considered more liable to be subjects of contagious disease than 
the higher class animals, and if not accompanied by a satis- 
factory certificate of test have been tested on arrival by inspec- 
tors of the Division. 

Rabies. 

Rabies is one of the more important infectious diseases of 
domestic animals with which the Division of Animal Industry 
has to contend. It is prevalent in practically all civilized 
countries, and especially so in the United States. 

When once established in a territory, it is tenacious in its 
hold, and complete eradication becomes a difficult matter. The 
control of its prevalence, however, is ordinarily accomplished 
quickly in a community where it breaks out when all agencies 
have been lined up against it and are functioning in a thorough 
and systematic manner. We find that it progressively spreads 
from one community to another until gradually many different 
sections eventually experience an outbreak. In addition to the 
loss of animals, some of them highly valued for one reason or 
another, the prevalence of rabies always carries with it more or 
less danger to human life. The restraint of animals is necessary 
to its suppression, and the regulatory measures called for are 
the cause of much trouble, expense and irritative inconvenience 
to the dog-owning public. 

Rabies is primarily a disease of animals, all the various 
species being susceptible to it. The dog, however, is the one 
most often affected and is the chief factor in its spread from 
section to section. On account of its ready communicability 
to the human subject and the tendency of rabid animals to 
attack persons, the prompt application of all control methods 
becomes an important duty, and is especially to be so consid- 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 

ered on account of fatalities which may occur. During the 
prevalence of rabies it unfortunately happens that some persons 
are bitten by the infected dogs, and in many instances the bite 
is inflicted before the animal shows sufficiently well-marked 
symptoms of the disease to be suspected or to put a person on 
guard against him. In such unfortunate occurrences, as well as 
in cases where persons are not able to avoid the attack of a 
furiously rabid animal, the Pasteur treatment in prevention of 
the disease is available and may be obtained by application to 
public health officials. This treatment being nearly 100 per 
cent effective, the loss of human life seldom occurs. 

As a protective health measure all dogs, whether suspected 
of rabies or not, which have bitten persons should be restrained 
and confined at least fourteen days for observation, in order 
that it may be positively determined whether or not they were 
infected at the time the biting occurred. If a local inspector 
or the Division of Animal Industry is notified, such animals 
are officially quarantined for that period and released at the 
end of it if no symptoms of rabies have developed. 

Based on the successful prevention in man, treatment in 
prevention of rabies in exposed animals is now available and is 
being taken advantage of in many instances apparently with 
success. The immunization of animals against the disease, 
conferring absolute protection to them if unfortunately coming 
in contact with a rabid animal, has been recently developed to 
what is thought to be a sufficiently effective stage to offer it 
for practical use. Many owners of valuable dogs, when there 
is an unusual prevalence of rabies, are having their animals 
protected by this means. If immunization against this disease 
can be proved practicable by further experience in this direc- 
tion, and all dogs can be treated, it may be that the problem 
of rabies eradication will be somewhat nearer solution than at 
present. 

The ownerless or stray dog is generally the first rabid animal 
to be found in any community, and the extent to which he may 
have spread the infection depends on how soon he has been 
apprehended after he developed the disease. No one being 
interested in the whereabouts or physical condition of the 
ownerless dog, he becomes an active spreader of the disease 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

before attention is centered on him. A more rigid enforcement 
of the dog laws would be valuable assistance in suppressing 
rabies, and is a factor which should be working in every com- 
munity at all times. 

Division records this year show a larger number of cases 
reported than in any year since 1916, when the lowest preva- 
lence for fifteen years was recorded, since which time there has 
been a gradual increase in their numbers. It is probable that 
we have not yet reached the peak of the upward trend of 
prevalence as yearly recorded on account of the vast amount of 
contagion recently existing in near-by States, the invasion of 
Massachusetts by it having been forecasted in our reports. 

Local inspectors of animals are familiar with the situation 
and are specially advised as to the importance of early quaran- 
tine, thorough investigation and prompt detailed reports to 
this office. 

Following is a general outline of the Division's present 
methods in rabies control work: — 

Upon report being made to the Division that a person has 
been bitten by a dog, the inspector of animals of the town or 
city in which it occurs is ordered to make an examination of 
the animal, and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it 
restrained for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of 
observation. The restraint for this length of time is deemed 
necessary for the reason that competent authorities have shown 
that in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies 
may communicate the infection fourteen days before the 
animal shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this period 
no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may be 
released. In case a person is bitten by a dog which, upon 
examination by the inspector of animals or any other person, 
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, or there 
is a history of its having been in contact with a rabid animal, 
the dog in either case is immediately confined in strict quaran- 
tine. If it is subsequently killed or dies, its head is at once 
sent to the Division's office, and a laboratory examination of 
the brain is made for the purpose of positively determining 
whether or not the animal was affected with the disease. In- 
formation as to the laboratory findings is promptly communi- 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

cated to the person or persons who have been bitten. The 
State Department of Public Health is given the information 
received in every case of dog bite reported to this office, 
whether the bite has been inflicted by an animal suspected of 
rabies or not. We also order the local inspector of animals not 
only to ascertain the names of all persons who have been bitten 
by dogs suspected of rabies but to find out if animals have also 
been bitten, and if so to place the same in quarantine for a 
period of at least ninety days. All dogs which are found to 
have been in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it 
appears that they have been bitten by it, are also placed in 
quarantine for the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist 
in any town or city, and the selectmen or the mayor or board 
of aldermen have not taken any special action in the emergency, 
we request them to issue a restraining order, under the provi- 
sions of section 167 of chapter 140 of the General Laws. Such 
an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals to 
their own premises for a certain period, or take them therefrom 
only on leash. This restraining order is much more effective 
in the local control of an outbreak than is an order which 
compels owners to muzzle the animals only but not restrain 
them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way get the 
muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muzzled dog 
at large may therefore become much more dangerous than an 
unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon owner's 
premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs found run- 
ning at large while a restraining order issued by town or city 
authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance of a war- 
rant for the same to a police officer. 

Our force of district agents, all of whom are veterinarians 
and located in different parts of the State, together with the 
local inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in 
every city and town of the State, constitutes an organization 
by which effective local control of an outbreak of this disease 
can generally be accomplished within a reasonably short time. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1921, 948 animals were 
reported to the Division for diagnosis, observation or quaran- 
tine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 28 were brought 



30 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



forward from the year 1920. The records have been classified 
as follows: — 

Animals suspected of rabies, primary cases 303 

Animals exposed to rabies (26 reported in 1920, 362 in 1921) . . 388 
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (2 reported in 1920, 

283 in 1921) 285 

Animals suspected of Rabies, Primary Cases. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. Swine. 


Horses. 


Diagnosis positive 
Diagnosis negative 
Diagnosis questionable 


247 
38 
10 


1 


4 
1 


1 


1 



Animals exposed to Rabies. 



Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Horses. 


258 


1 


1 


1 


47 


1 


- 


- 


35 


1 


- 


- 


42 


- 


- 


- 



Goats. 



Number released after a quarantine of 

ninety days. 
Number killed, no symptoms having 

developed. 
Number killed, positive symptoms having 

developed. 
Number still held under observation 



Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons. 





Dogs. 


Cats. 


Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having de- 
veloped. 

Number released after fourteen days' quarantine . 
Number still held under observation . 


25 

4 

251 

2 


3 



Of the 28 animals which were under observation at the close 
of the year 1920, 3 were killed and 25 were released, no symp- 
toms of rabies having developed. 

The questionable cases given in the preceding table may be 
briefly referred to as follows: 6 dogs and 1 cat were killed or 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 

died, having shown symptoms which might indicate rabies but 
on which the laboratory could arrive at no definite diagnosis; 
2 were killed or died, report on which was considered unreliable; 
2 " contact cases" escaped quarantine and were not again lo- 
cated. 

During the past year the Division received reports of 383 
persons having been bitten by dogs, and 6 persons having been 
bitten by cats. Eighty-two of these persons were bitten by 
54 of the dogs classified in the tables as positive cases. In all 
cases of dog bite which are reported, the dog is immediately 
quarantined for observation except in cases where the animal 
is immediately killed. Of the cases of dog bite reported, 298 
were inflicted by dogs proved not to be affected with rabies. 
One case was that of a dog on which laboratory examination 
was questionable, and 2 cases of bite were by dogs which are 
still in quarantine for observation. 

It is deemed advisable, in all cases where possible, that the 
heads of animals supposed to be affected with rabies should be 
examined at the laboratory in order to confirm diagnosis. 
During the past year laboratory examination has been made of 
the brains of 268 dogs, 7 cats, 1 swine and 1 horse. Of this 
number, 203 dogs and 1 horse showed positive evidence of the 
disease. 

Of the 948 animals reported for observation, diagnosis or 
quarantine during the year, 39 dogs were, as far as could be 
ascertained, ownerless and unlicensed, 29 of which proved to be 
positive cases of the disease. 

An early symptom in very many cases of rabies in dogs is a 
tendency to wander away from home, and before an owner has 
noticed any change in the animal. As showing the distance a 
case may travel before being apprehended, 1 dog was killed 
in the town of Rockland, which was owned in New Bedford; 
1, killed in Dartmouth, was owned in Wrentham; 1, killed in 
Millbury, was owned in Wellesley; 1, killed in Attleboro, was 
owned in Providence, R. I. 

As showing the wide variance in the incubation period of 
rabies, the following tabulation, covering 37 contact cases, may 
be of interest : — 



32 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



1 dog developed rabies on the 5th day. 



1 dog 


a t 


t cc cc 


9th 


it 






7 dogs 


U C 


' between the 10th and 20th day 


1 calf 


it t 


i cc 


it 


tc 


cc 


ti cc 


1 goat 


CC C 


i cc 


(C 


cc 


cc 


cc cc 


10 dogs 


CC t 


i CI 


a 


20th 


cc 


30th " 


1 dog 


CC I 


I (C 


it 


30th 


cc 


40th " 


3 dogs 


cc i 


t tc 


a 


40th 


cc 


50th < 


2 dogs 


cc t 


t a 


tc 


50th 


cc 


60th " 


1 dog 


cc c 


i a 


cc 


60th 


cc 


70th " 


2 dogs 


It I 


t ti 


a 


70th 


cc 


80th " 


1 dog 


cc c 


t a 


cc 


80th 


CI 


90th " 


1 dog 


It I 


' on the 137th day. 






1 dog 


a i 


i a u 


210th 


cc 






4 dogs 


cc i 


1 time uncertain. 







37 



Attention is called to the fact that the shortest period of 
incubation was 5 days, and the longest period 210 days. 

Our quarantine period is fixed at 90 days, that being con- 
sidered a safe time at which to release contact dogs not 
showing symptoms of the disease. The cases having a longer 
period of incubation are so few that they should be considered 
exceptions. 

The following table shows the number of positive cases of 
rabies, by cities and towns, during the year ending Nov. 30, 
1921: — 



City ok Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Goats. 


Abington ...... 


5 


- 


- 


- 


Acushnet 


2 


- 


- 




Arlington . . 


5 


- 


- 


- 




3 


1 


- 


- 




1 


- 


- 


- 


Billerica 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Boston 


14 


- 


- 


- 




2 


-, 


- 


- 




5 


- 


- 


- 


Brookline 


10 




- 


- 


Cambridge 


2 


- 


- 


J 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



33 



City or Town 




Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Goats. 


Dalton . . ■ ■ . 




11 


- 


1 


- 


Danvers 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Dartmouth . 










9 


1 


- 


- 


Dedham 










5 


- 


- 


- 


Dighton 










3 


- 


- 


- 


Dudley 










3 


- 


- 


- 


Duxbury 










1 


- 


- 


- 


East Bridgewatei 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Easton 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Everett 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Fall River . 










22 


- 


- 


- 


Foxborough 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Gloucester . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Groveland . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Haverhill 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Hingham 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Holbrook 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Hull . 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Lawrence 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Lexington . 










3 


- 


- 


- 


Lincoln 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Lowell 










1 


- - 


- 


- 


Lunenburg . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Lynn . 










4 


- 


- 


- 


Lynn field . 










1 


- 


- 


• 


Mansfield 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Medfield 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Medford 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Melrose 










2 


, 


- 


- 


Middleborough . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Millbury 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Milton 










4 


- 


- 


- 


Natick 








1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


Needham 










5 


- 


- 


- 


New Bedford 










24 


- 


- 


- 


Newton 










4 


- 


- 


- 


North Attleborough . 








4 


- 


- 


1 


North Brook field 








1 


- 


- 


- 


Norwell 








2 


- 


- 


- 



34 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Goats. 


Norwood 


8 


- 


- 


- 


Oakham 


. 






1 


- 


- 


- 


Pittsfield . 








7 


- 


- 


- 


Quincy 


v 








5 


- 


- 


- 


Randolph . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Reading - . 










5 


- 


- 


- 


Rehoboth . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Revere 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Rockland 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Salem . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Saugus 










5 


- 


- 


- 


Sharon 










1 


■ - 


-' 


- 


Shirley 










3 


- 


- 


- 


Somerset 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Somerville . 










4 


- 


- 


- 


Springfield 










1 


. 


- ' 


- 


Stoneham . 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Sudbury 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Swampscott 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Taunton 










12 


. 


- 


- 


Wakefield . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Watertown . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Webster 










11 


- 


- 


- 


Westport 










2 


- 


- 




Westwood . 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Weymouth . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Whitman 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Wilmington 










3 


- 


- 




Winchester . 










1 


- 


- . 


- 


Winthrop 










2 


- 


- 


- 


Woburn 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Worcester 










6 


- 


- 


- 


Wrentham . 










1 


- 


- 


- 


Totals . 


282 


2 


1 


1 



Following is a chart showing the proved cases of rabies in the 
several species of animals covering the period from 1905 to 1921, 
inclusive. 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 




36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Hog Cholera. 

Next in importance to its work in control of contagious 
diseases of cattle is that now being carried on by the Division in 
the protective treatment of swine against hog cholera, and also 
when necessary the preventive or curative treatment to those 
exposed to or affected with any of the many other infections to 
which they are susceptible. 

In recent years more attention has been given to swine dis- 
eases than formerly. They were causing a serious loss which 
was tending toward complete failure of this class of live stock to 
adequately contribute to the public food supply or in a degree 
that might reasonably be expected. Hog cholera was fast 
decimating Massachusetts herds of swine, especially where 
garbage was being used as their principal food. On account 
of this material being a recognized carrier of contagion, the 
economic utilization of this great waste of the household was 
threatened unless the ravages of this disease could be con- 
trolled. 

The Division's work in this direction was commenced in 
1914 after a complete survey of the situation. Its plans were 
carefully drawn, methods of execution were studied in minute 
detail, and a system of procedure was inaugurated which is 
in operation at the present day with very few changes other 
than those in technique, as dictated from time to time by ex- 
perience. 

The great economic value of this State work lies in its pre- 
ventive aspect. It is a line of effort parallel to the direction 
of all medical progress of the present day, i.e., prevention of 
disease rather than cure, thus rendering unnecessary all the 
time, trouble and expense of curative treatment. 

During the year the number of protective inoculations against 
hog cholera administered by Division inspectors constituted 
about 70 per cent of the total number of swine found on the 
farms at the latest inspection in the spring of 1921. Numbers 
of these animals were found to have rapidly reduced since the 
count made one year before, the decrease amounting to about 
25 per cent, namely, about . 25,000 head. This condition is 
regrettable from the standpoint of the well-recognized necessity- 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 

for increased production in every line of endeavor if living 
conditions are to improve, but it is acknowledged that market 
rates paid the hog raiser for the past two years have been 
altogether too low to encourage the raising of larger numbers, 
and have in fact discouraged maintaining the industry at a 
level anywhere near the normal. 

The decrease in the swine industry this year owing to market 
conditions would naturally have diminished the amount of the 
Division's work in their protection from disease, but we find 
such not to be the case. It has been a low year in the inci- 
dence of hog cholera in this section of the country, although 
present local prevalence and reports from the Middle West 
indicate a gradual return to its former wide prevalence, and to 
a type showing as formerly a higher degree of virulence. 

The number of preventive inoculations administered to swine 
this year is about the same as in 1920. The percentage of them 
now protected against hog cholera is probably larger than at 
any time since this work was undertaken. 

As a contagious-disease control work which if successful was 
bound to become of large magnitude, it was deemed necessary 
to so regulate it by official order at its very beginning as to 
avoid the danger acknowledged to be present in an unrestricted 
or indiscriminate use of the active virus of the disease, the 
only successful method of treatment yet developed, and which 
calls for the careful use of this dangerous material; therefore, 
it must be handled by men responsible to some authority. 

Another necessity seemed to be the selection of veterinarians 
for this work who, physically able to perform the strenuous 
labor of restraining and treating swine, should at the same time 
be inclined to make a thorough study of a new problem and 
intelligently interpret their field experiences. 

We also decided it to be vitally necessary that all biological 
preparations used, although manufactured under the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry license, should be proved 
by our own tests to be potent, and thereafter held and stored 
under our control and direction. 

In no way could all these important phases of the plan be 
taken care of other than to restrict the field work to veteri- 
narians responsible to a central head, subject to orders changed 



38 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



from time to time as conditions indicated the necessity; men 
who would be available for daily consultation with the Director 
and for discussion with their fellow workers, all these require- 
ments being necessary in order that every individual worker 
might have the benefit of the composite experience of the entire 
force of workers. 

The proving by test of all products used in treatment was 
arranged for and has been continued, and the use of them has, 
by Department order, been restricted to veterinarians selected 
by the Director and under his supervision. 

The soundness of the policies above indicated has been 
proved, and the efficiency of the work is a matter of record. 
We find this to be readily acknowledged by live-stock owners. 

We respectfully submit that our present methods should be 
continued, and that any proposed legislation to modify them 
should be opposed as against public interest as a whole and the 
swine industry in particular. 

Following is a list of cities and towns in which hog cholera 
prevention work has been carried on during the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1921 : — 









Inoculations 


. 




Herds 
inoculated. 








City or Town. 










Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Abington 


1 


7 


6 


13 


Acushnet 












2 


7 


4 


11 


Adams 












1 


67 


5 


72 


Agawam 












13 


84 


52 


136 


Amesbury 












2 


8 





8 


Amherst 












4 


88 


15 


103 


Andover 












1 


28 





28 


Arlington 












3 


10 


14 


24 


Athol 












2 


17 


32 


49 


Attleboro 












5 


34 . 


88 


122 


Auburn 












3 


10 


18 


28 


Ayer . 












1 


109 


50 


159 


Barnstable 












3 


19 


21 


40 


Becket 












1 


40 


28 


68 


Bedford 












1 


31 


12 


43 


Belmont 












6 


822 


464 


1,286 


Beverly 












1 


209 


109 


318 


Billerica 












3 


77 


86 


163 


Bolton 












4 


11 


28 


39 


Boston 












5 


487 


846 


1,333 


Boylston 












1 


22 





22 


Braintree 












3 


267 


157 


424 


Bridgewatei 












3 


141 


120 


261 


Brockton 












3 


1,058 


1,011 


2,069 


Brookfield 












4 


66 


29 


95 


Brookline 












1 


12 





12 


Burlington 










. 2 


115 


16 


131 


Cambridge 










1 


10 


2 


12 


Canton 










1 


9 


7 


16 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



39 









Inoculations 






Herds 
inoculated. 








City or Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


Charlton . . . . . . 


3 


45 


28 


73 


Cheshire 








1 


2 





2 


Chicopee . 








20 


309 


196 


505 


Clarksburg 








1 


6 





6 


Clinton 








8 


19 


8 


27 


Dalton 








1 


59 


33 


92 


Danvers 








3 


356 


201 


557 


Dartmouth 








5 


84 


209 


293 


Dedham 








5 


20 


23 


43 


Deerfield . 








1 


71 


32 


103 


Dighton 








1 


27 


20 


47 


Dracut 








2 


9 


16 


25 


Dudley 








5 


18 


17 


35 


East Bridgewater 








2 


3 


19 


22 


East Brookfield 








2 





5 


5 


Easthampton 








4 


24 


7 


31 


East Longmeadow 








1 


1 





1 


Easton 








2 


8 


5 


13 


Edgar town 








2 


8 


2 


10 


Essex . 








1 


3 


5 


8 


Fall River . 








4 


16 


13 


29 


Fitchburg . 








16 


132 


72 


204 


Foxborough 








2 


135 


259 


394 


Framingham 




♦ 




2 


88 


39 


127 


Gardner . , 








8 


169 


216 


385 


Georgetown 








1 





2 


2 


Gill . 








1 


10 


33 


43 


Gloucester 








10 


354 


231 


585 


Grafton 








9 


216 


417 


633 


Granby 








1 


5 





5 


Great Barrington 








1 


5 





5 


Greenfield . 








5 


126 


123 


249 


Greenwich . 








1 


15 


13 


28 


Groton 








1 


22 





22 


Hadley 








1 


14 


2 


16 


Hamilton . 








1 


5 





5 


Hampden . 








1 


8 


6 


14 


Hardwick . 








1 





15 


15 


Harvard 








4 


20 


11 


31 


Haverhill . 








4 


31 


15 


46 


Hingham . 








1 


5 


5 


10 


Holden 








8 


25 


40 


65 


Holyoke 








11 


233 


153 


386 


Hudson 








1 


17 





17 


Huntington 








3 


7 





7 


Ipswich 








2 


37 


24 


61 


Lakeville . 








1 


130 


189 


319 


Lancaster . 








4 


19 





19 


Lawrence . . . 








1 


91 


53 


144 


Leicester 








3 


11 


5 


16 


Leominster 








1 


94 


32 


126 


Lexington . 








21 


2,230 


2,326 


4,556 


Lincoln 








8 


336 


231 


567 


Littleton . 








4 


66 


84 


150 


Longmeadow 








3 


620 


371 


991 


Lowell 








6 


354 


184 


538 


Ludlow 








8 


496 


271 


767 


Lunenburg 








2 


61 


23 


84 


Lynn .... 








3 


68 


27 


95 


Lynn field . 








1 


45 


44 


89 


Manchester 








3 


12 


6 


18 


Marblehead 








8 


153 


123 


276 


Marion 








1 


29 


7 


36 


Mattapoisett 








1 


2 





2 


Medfield 








3 


227 


159 


386 


Medford 








3 


27 


49 


76 


Methuen 








6 


30 


22 


52 


Milford 








5 


121 


31 


152 


Millbury 








5 


65 


73 


138 


Milton 








4 


139 


85 


224 


Monson 








2 


66 


6 


72 


Natick 








3 


230 


108 


338 


Need ham . 






8 


128 


146 


274 



40 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 













Inoculations 






Herds 
inoculated. 








City ok Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


New Bedford 


3 


35 


65 


100 


Newbury . 










3 


15 


16 


31 


Newburyport 










11 


46 


6 


52 


Newton 










8 


211 


203 


414 


Norfolk 










3 


47 


74 


121 


North Adams 










5 


124 


49 


173 


Northampton 










15 


445 


333 


778 


North Attleboro 


ugh 








3 


105 


87 


192 


Northbridge 










3 


146 


106 


252 


Northfield . 










1 


94 


48 


142 


North Reading 










1 


76 


92 


168 


Norton 










1 


10 


31 


41 


Norwood . 










1 


14 


14 


28 


Orange 










2 


11 


8 


19 


Otis . 










1 


7 





7 


Oxford 










6 


15 


47 


62 


Palmer 










1 


6 





6 


Paxton 










1 


42 


44 


86 


Peabody 










13 


434 


301 


735 


Pepperell . 










2 


21 


53 


74 


Pittsfield . 










18 


763 


209 


972 


Plymouth . 










2 


106 


165 


271 


Provincetown 










32 


82 


3 


85 


Quincy 










3 


140 


132 


272 


Randolph . 










2 


104 


34 


138 


Reading 










2 


46 





46 


Rehoboth . 










2 


12 


25 


37 


Revere 










8 


1,664 


892 


2,556 


Richmond 










1 





1 


1 


Rockport . 










2 


103 


17 


120 


Rowley 










1 


11 





11 


Rutland 










2 


84 


133 


217 


Salem 










4 


337 


193 


530 


Salisbury . 










2 


1 


9 


10 


Saugus 










9 


117 


44 


161 


Seekonk 










. 10 


543 


312 


855 


Sharon 










1 


4 


11 


15 


Shelburne . 










2 


12 





12 


Sherborn . 










2 


164 


145 


309 


Shirley 










1 


48 


51 


99 


Shrewsbury 










2 


101 


328 


429 


Somerset . 










1 





3 


3 


Southbridge 










5 


10 


44 


54 


South Hadley 










15 


165 


32 


197 


Springfield 










21 


1,224 


453 


1,677 


Sterling 










1 


7 


2 


9 


Stoughton . 










4 


6 





6 


Sudbury 










1 


11 





11 


Sutton 










2 





13 


13 


Swansea 










4 


1,974 


1,219 


3,193 


Taunton 










5 


381 


388 


769 


Templeton 










9 


85 


32 


117 


Tewksbury 










1 


263 


112 


375 


Townsend . 










2 


10 


13 


23 


Tyngsborough 










1 


' 6 





6 


Upton 










1 


3 





3 


Wakefield . 










3 


9 


34 


43 


Walpole 










4 


20 


53 


73 


Waltham . 










11 


1,970 


1,700 


3,670 


Wareham . 










1 





2 


2 


Watertown 










1 


20 


39 


59 


Wayland 










2 


12 


11 


23 


Webster 










13 


40 


40 


80 


Wellesley . 










2 


90 


8 


98 


Wen ham 










1 


7 


3 


10 


Westborough 










4 


253 


247 


500 


West Boylston 










1 


33 


67 


100 


Westfield . 










9 


129 


160 


289 


Westford . 










2 


8 





8 


Westminster 










3 


25 


3 


28 


West Newbury . 










1 


11 





11 


Weston 










5 


74 ■ 


22 


96 


Westport . 

f 










2 


9 


21 


30 



1922.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



41 













Herds 
inoculated. 


Inoculations. 


City ok Town. 


Serum and 
Virus. 


Serum 
only. 


Total. 


West Springfield 
Westwood . 
Weymouth 
Whately 
Whitman . 
Wilbraham 
Wilmington 
Winchendon 
Woburn 
Worcester . 
Wrentham . 
Yarmouth . 










4 
3 
2 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 
9 
10 
3 
1 


41 

193 

56 

3 

3 

38 

66 

1 

286 

2,490 

170 

1 


92 

60 

28 



20 

67 

171 

5 

229 

5,203 

48 




133 

253 

84 

3 

23 

105 

237 

6 

515 

7,693 

218 

1 


Totals . 










740 


29,031 


25,315 


54,346 



The preceding table shows that work has been done in 187 
cities and towns this year, 13 less than during 1920, but neces- 
sitating 1,635 visits by one or more inspectors. In addition 
there were 112 visits made to places where the swine were not 
treated for the following reasons: the animals in some instances 
had no chance of recovery; in others the trouble was found to 
be some non-contagious infection; again in some of the cases 
proper sanitary conditions necessary to successful w 7 ork could 
not be established; and in a few cases the owners did not de- 
sire to have the animals treated. 

Comparative statistics in detail are shown in the following- 
table, and the chart on page 44 shows in a general way the 
hog cholera prevention work from the time of its inception to 
the present : — 



42 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 






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ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



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1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45 

The preceding pages of statistics tabulating eight years' 
work of this Division in control of hog cholera may be inter- 
preted and considered as a fairly correct history of the actual 
prevalence of the disease in Massachusetts, except during the 
earlier years in the table when the work had only commenced 
and was not known to swine owners generally. 

The high point of our work in 1919 was reached when hog 
cholera was raging extensively in many different sections of the 
country. This was followed by a "low" year in 1920 all over 
the country. Early in 1921 the Middle West reported rapidly 
increasing prevalence of the disease, its virulence also becoming 
very much intensified. We began to note the same condition 
appearing in this State in the early fall months, and it is still 
continuing at much the same rate at the date of this report. 
All indications point to a largely increased amount of control 
work for the winter and spring months. 

Total eradication of hog cholera cannot be looked forward to 
with any degree of confidence, as the very nature of the infec- 
tion and the unfavorable conditions under which the susceptible 
animals are maintained preclude any such result of even the 
most carefully planned and well-executed measures. 

Closely supervised, well-regulated service by a well-organized 
unit responsible to a central head will undoubtedly control 
the disease within reasonable limits. Unquestionably it would 
be a serious mistake to relax in any particular the restrictions 
now applying to the sale and use of hog-cholera serum and 
virus, — products which in their careful administration by 
well-trained men make for positive control of the disease, but 
in the hands of untrained men not responsible to any authority 
become a certain means of spreading the disease and defeating 
the purpose of their manufacture and use. 

We call particular attention to the mortality rates shown 
in the preceding tabulation as in a concrete way showing the 
quality of the work; it is generally recognized that careless 
administration, faulty technique, and errors in judgment are 
the principal factors in increasing the mortality rate. Massa- 
chusetts records in this work as shown by this tabulation of 
years will bear comparison with that of any yet published. 
They have always commanded special attention and have 
brought forth much commendation by interested observers. 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The sanitary conditions under which swine are kept, while 
found to be somewhat improved from year to year, are never- 
theless far from what they ought to be. We have found in 
many instances where serious losses of animals have occurred 
that the primary causative factor has been unsanitary or poor 
housing conditions, which have lowered the vitality and the 
normal resistance of animals to disease, allowing bacterial 
invasion a favorable opening. Such conditions also seriously 
handicap recovery from disease and delay the elimination of 
infection. While perfect sanitary conditions are hard to obtain 
in piggeries as generally managed, yet very great improvement 
can be made on many premises and would be followed by 
results which undoubtedly would be evident in more pigs, 
healthier pigs, and consequently a better financial showing. 

At the present time the diseases of swine are probably re- 
ceiving more attention on the part of swine raisers, veterina- 
rians, live-stock sanitary officials and those engaged in scientific 
research than at any period in the history of control work in 
contagious diseases of animals. The ultimate result will 
undoubtedly be the solution of many of the control problems 
which now confront us. 

By reason of our work in the control of hog cholera we have 
been brought in close touch with many other disease conditions, 
some of which are of serious menace to the raisers of swine. 
In their clinical aspects many so closely resemble hog cholera 
that differential diagnoses are difficult and only arrived at 
after considerable investigation both in the field and in the 
laboratory. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Swine. — This disease has pre- 
vailed quite extensively during the year. Its prevention, 
control and cure are intimately connected with our hog cholera 
work on account of the similarity of many of the symptoms 
presented by both diseases. A differential diagnosis is often 
beset with many difficulties, and our trained veterinarians who 
are having daily experience in the treatment of both diseases 
find that they need to consider all the circumstances surround- 
ing a case, such as the history of the outbreak, symptoms 
exhibited, and post-mortem appearances. Even then there is 
possibility of both infections being present, and which is the 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 

primary factor and what shall be the line of treatment adopted 
become matters dependent on the good judgment of the ex- 
perienced field worker. Owing to the difficulties of such situa- 
tions we believe that errors in diagnoses are more readily 
avoided by the Division inspector than by one of more limited 
experience. 

Notwithstanding the use of the biological preparations for 
the prevention and cure of hemorrhagic septicemia is in no way 
restricted by law or Department order, and can be lawfully 
used by any registered veterinarian, the Division treats many 
animals affected with this disease on account of its association 
with outbreaks at first thought to be hog cholera and so re- 
ported, and under the premise that its duty is clearly defined 
in the case of outbreak of any animal disease classified as con- 
tagious. During the year 10,580 treatments in the prevention, 
control or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia have been adminis- 
tered, and all indications are that this branch of work will 
necessarily be continued the coming year. 

Various mixed infections of swine have been encountered 
in our work in hog cholera. They are often coexistent with 
that disease and are handled as circumstances indicate neces- 
sary. The study of their importance and of their particular 
significance in many widely varied combinations is one of the 
principal present-day activities of those interested in these 
infections from a scientific standpoint. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — During this year only one authenticated case of 
anthrax has been recorded, that of one cow in a town in the 
central part of the State. The record is unusual in that any 
source of anthrax generally produces more than a single case 
and the case itself is almost certain to leave the infection, which 
is later picked up by one or more susceptible subjects even 
though all known precautions are taken against such occur- 
rences. 

Nearly all species of the domesticated animals are susceptible 
to the disease and infection of the human subject sometimes 
occurs, the latter generally caused by handling carcasses, hides 
or wool of infected animals. 



48 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

No extensive prevalence of the disease in animals has 
occurred in Massachusetts for several years, and from the low 
record of this year we assume that the former sources of the 
contagion are gradually being eliminated. What must be a 
factor in this elimination is the annual protective inoculation 
given all animals on premises known to have been infected. 
As this inoculation is supposed to confer an immunity for twelve 
months and possibly not any longer, treatment is advised 
every succeeding year as the anthrax bacillus or its spores are 
known to retain their potency for a long period of time under 
favorable circumstances, and soil once infected is considered 
a possible source of an outbreak for many years thereafter. 

During the past year preventive inoculation has been applied 
to 94 head of cattle on 8 different premises located in 4 towns. 

Our method of procedure in reported anthrax is as follows: 
Every report is immediately investigated and subsequent action 
is taken as deemed advisable by consideration of the facts 
disclosed. Positive diagnosis is first necessary, and, as the 
animals generally either are found dead or die before arrival 
of a veterinarian or Division inspector, a post-mortem exam- 
ination would ordinarily be depended upon to confirm the sus- 
picions of anthrax. As post-mortem appearances in this 
disease are often not sufficiently characteristic to justify a posi- 
tive diagnosis, and as the opening of a carcass allows the body 
fluids to escape and possibly spread the infection, it is advised 
that the suspected carcass be not opened, but that a specimen 
of blood be drawn from the cadaver onto a piece of glass and 
then allowed to dry in the air. If this specimen is not badly 
contaminated by careless preparation, and is promptly for- 
warded to a laboratory, there is no difficulty in determining 
whether or not anthrax bacilli are present. 

A field diagnosis or suspicion of anthrax having been con- 
firmed, preventive measures at once follow. They consist of 
proper disposal of diseased carcasses, disinfection of premises, 
and preventive inoculation of susceptible and exposed animals. 

To prevent infection spreading from a carcass it should be 
burned or deeply buried, covered with quicklime. Anthrax 
bacilli or their spores if not destroyed may continue to infect 
soil for a long time; in many instances these organisms have 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 

been found to remain active for a number of years. We recom- 
mend that any contaminated ground be burned over and the 
surface area above a buried carcass be fenced and burned over 
yearly. Any contaminated portions of buildings if wooden 
should be torn out and burned, and if concrete should be 
thoroughly disinfected. 

The remaining animals of the herd should be at once removed 
to other buildings or areas, and the apparently healthy ones 
inoculated in prevention of the disease. Animals already 
affected are sometimes successfully treated, but ordinarily 
the disease runs such a rapid course that death takes place 
before the animal is noticed to be seriously sick, and our efforts 
are consequently limited to protection of the animals not show- 
ing symptoms. Although a certain percentage of deaths may 
reasonably be expected to occur among the inoculated animals, 
we find in actual experience that fatalities are very few. 

Preventive inoculation is supposed to confer immunity for a 
period of at least twelve months. At premises where an out- 
break has occurred and there is reason to fear permanent in- 
fection, it is advised that all susceptible animals be given a 
preventive inoculation each succeeding year for a certain period. 

Blackleg. — This is a disease the causative organisms of 
which are found in the soil of infected pastures, where they 
multiply and through their resistant spores preserve their 
capacity for development even under unfavorable conditions. 
Animals are infected by coming in contact with such material 
and seldom by transmission of the disease from other animals. 
This explains the fact that we seldom have an outbreak in 
animals which are stabled, but find it always occurring during 
the pasture season. 

It is readily prevented by inoculation of certain biological 
products prepared for the purpose and which confer an im- 
munity lasting at least for one entire season. As the disease 
seldom develops in adult cattle, only those between the ages 
of six months and three years are treated in prevention. 

We recommend the inoculation every season of all the young 
cattle on premises where the disease has been known to exist, 
and the best time to do this is of course just previous to the 
turning out of the young stock in the spring. On the occur- 



50 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



rente of a new outbreak, however, all the susceptible animals 
should be immediately treated and as an extra precaution 
removed from the particular lot or pasture where the disease 
appeared. 

We have many farms in Massachusetts where blackleg has 
been known to exist at one time or another, and there are 
undoubtedly many pastures in which young cattle have died 
from blackleg without the cause of death having been positively 
determined. It should therefore be considered a circumstance 
suspicious of this disease if young cattle have been found dead 
in pasture from no readily explainable cause. The preventive 
inoculation of young cattle against this disease is a service 
rendered by Division inspectors free of expense to owners. 

During the year we have administered this treatment to 
1,137 animals on 164 farms located in 51 different towns, as 
tabulated below : — 











Premises. 










Premises. 


Agawam . .4 


Montague ... 1 


Ashburnham 








. 3 


New Marlborough 






1 


Ashby . 








27 


New Salem 






1 


Ashfield 










1 


North Adarris 








1 


Athol . 










5 


Northampton 








1 


Auburn 










1 


Orange 








17 


Becket 










2 


Peru . 










1 


Blandford 










2 


Pittsfield 










2 


Boxborough 










1 


Prescott 










1 


Brimfield 










2 


Rowe . 




- 






4 


Cheshire 










1 


Royalston 










2 


Chester 










7 


Shelburne 










4 


D alt on 










1 


South Hadley 








1 


Fitchburg 










3 


Southampton 








2 


Gardner 










2 


Southwick . 








1 


Granby 










1 


Templeton . 








1 


Greenwich 










2 


Townsend . 








12 


Harvard 










4 


Tyringham 








2 


Holyoke 










4 


Warwick 








4 


Huntington 










1 


Washington 








1 


Lee 










7 


Wendell . 








1 


Leicester 










2 


Westhampton 








2 


Leverett 










1 


Williamstown 








3 


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6 


Winchendon 








1 


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1 


Windsor 








1 


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5 















1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 

The records show that we have treated this year 148 more 
animals than last year and on 21 more farms, the location of 
which comprised 4 additional towns. The deaths reported 
are 22 head of stock on 8 different premises. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, 
as to disposal of infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, 
are applicable following occurrence of this disease. 

Actinomycosis. — Ten cases of this disease have been re- 
ported this year, located as follows: 1 each in Bridgewater, 
Deerfield, Duxbury, Florida, Harvard, Kingston, Norfolk, 
Plymouth, Southbridge and Winchester. 

Of the 10 cases on this year's record, 4 have been slaughtered, 
1 was released as having recovered after having been given 
treatment, and 5 proved to be some condition other than 
actinomycosis. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — The prevalence of this 
disease in Massachusetts is of somewhat greater importance 
than formerly as far as number of reported deaths is con- 
cerned, the increase being 50 per cent this year. We do not, 
however, have the experience of many other States, which 
receive most of their incoming cattle from public stockyards, 
picking up an acute form of this infection somewhere en route 
from shipping point. Our outbreaks generally occur among 
pasture cattle and are characterized by sudden death generally 
of one creature. Removal of all the other animals in the same 
enclosure oftentimes stops the extension of the disease. 

Preventive inoculation is, however, advised for all remaining 
animals in the herd which are not showing symptoms, and 
curative treatment of those apparently sick is quite often effec- 
tive if the disease is not too far advanced. Preventive inocula- 
tion has been administered to 137 cattle this year. Prompt 
report generally means prompt relief of a situation of this kind, 
and as a laboratory examination is often necessary for positive 
diagnosis, we encourage the early shipment of specimens in 
suspected cases. 

Our records this year show 33 deaths from hemorrhagic 
septicemia in cattle, occurring in the following towns: Ashburn- 
ham, 3; Chesterfield, 4; Gloucester, 1; Hardwick, 5; Lexing- 
ton, 6; Mendon, 4; Royalston, 7; West Boylston, 3. 



52 ANIMAL- INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

A small number of cases of this disease in sheep was reported 
from the towns of Conway and Royalston, the latter case 
being investigated by a Division inspector. 

Parasitic Diseases. — Profitable live-stock raising is not possi- 
ble if infestation of farm animals with external or internal 
parasites exists to an extent not readily controllable. A great 
economical waste of good food takes place and is shown in the 
slower or totally inhibited growth of cattle, sheep or swine 
which are infested. In young stock especially, which is more 
susceptible to attack than adult animals, the most serious dam- 
age by these parasites is noted, often rendering the raising or 
further feeding of the affected animals inadvisable from an 
economical standpoint. 

Irritation in all degrees of intensity, much acute suffering, 
and occasional deaths are caused by these low forms of animal 
life, and it certainly is opportune that the study of this variety 
of animal infliction is being rapidly brought to a point 
where practical benefits may be obtained by scientific treat- 
ment. 

The most important parasitic condition brought to the atten- 
tion of the Division is that known as mange, which affects 
large numbers of cattle during certain seasons and prevails 
to some extent among horses. Many fewer cases have been 
reported this year than usual, indicating a subsidence of this 
troublesome affection. While we have received reports of 170 
head of cattle affected on 6 farms, — less than one-half the 
number reported in 1920, — we know that our reports are 
not a very good indication of the extent of infestation for the 
reason that many cattle owners do not consider their cases 
of sufficient importance to engage our attention. 

Treatment of mange is not expensive but is very inconven- 
ient of application, and success depends alone on faithful 
application of proper medicinal remedies. Owners of horses 
infested with the mange parasite now realize that the ridding 
of their animals of it means additional days' service of the 
animals and less food necessary to keep them in proper condi- 
tion of flesh. 

It is our custom to quarantine all reported cases of mange, 
especially if owners or attendants are not disposed to apply 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53 

proper treatment. Eighteen cases of the disease in horses 
have been reported this year from 8 different premises. Quar- 
antined horses are generally allowed to work during treatment 
but are forbidden to enter inclosures other than their own 
stables. 

Foot-and-mouth Disease. — Five years have now passed since 
this disease was eradicated from this country, but it still pre- 
vails to an alarming extent in South America and many other 
foreign countries with which the United States has intimate 
trade relations. The possibility of the infection being conveyed 
to this country through the channels of commerce constitutes 
an ever-present danger to our live-stock interests and necessi- 
tates constant watchfulness in order to promptly discover the 
first outbreak should this country again be visited by the con- 
tagion. Live-stock officials of the Nation and the several 
States are fortunately very much alive to the impending danger, 
and are prepared to take immediate steps to surround and con- 
trol the disease at the first notice of its appearance. It is 
probable that all the precautionary measures now ready to be 
put in operation will effectively prevent any wide extension of 
the malady if it does appear, and will confine its prevalence 
within narrow limits. 

Up to date the development of a serum for the immunization 
of susceptible animals against foot-and-mouth disease has not 
progressed to a point showing it to be of practical value in 
control work, and it is probable that the stamping-out process, 
which has always been successful in this country, would be the 
method pursued in fighting the contagion on its appearance. 

In Massachusetts all live-stock officials, Division veteri- 
narians, local inspectors of animals, and private veterinarians 
have been notified of the real danger of an invasion of the 
disease, and asked to immediately notify the Division office 
of any suspicious cases that are found. We have had this 
year reports from four different sections of such suspicious cases, 
but upon prompt investigation all of them proved negative. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. — Without doubt the prevalence 
of bovine infectious abortion is very extensive, and the losses 
caused by it and its many concurrent conditions are second 
only to those caused by bovine tuberculosis. Many dairymen 



54 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

and breeders of thoroughbred cattle assert that of the two con- 
ditions infectious abortion is the more serious when the animal 
loss is taken into consideration and immediate profits alone 
are not made the basis of reckoning. 

Although a condition acknowledged to be communicable from 
animal to animal, and one in which control measures are suc- 
cessful to a degree, strictly official action in this direction is of 
course not advisable and would be of practically no aid in 
local relief of such a situation. The intimate handling of a 
herd problem of this kind is naturally one for the private 
veterinarian to cope with, and the functions of live-stock 
officials would seem properly to be limited to rendering such 
aid as might be given by advice regarding the general manage- 
ment of infected herds, and how to carry out the various sani- 
tary measures recognized as essential to progress in the control 
of any infection. 

Sale restrictions by official order may eventually be found 
advisable after some of the problems of this infection now being 
studied have been definitely solved. 

Other Infectious Diseases. — Inspectors of slaughtering occa- 
sionally bring to our attention the finding of tuberculosis in 
swine at time of their slaughter, and in all such instances if 
we get the information as to what premises the animals came 
from, we immediately have all the cattle examined which may 
be thereon. The source of this disease in swine is often found 
in the cattle with which they are kept, and a slaughterer's 
report may therefore be the means of leading us to a tubercu- 
lous cow. Thirteen cases of swine tuberculosis have been re- 
ported this year from 11 different towns. 

Tuberculosis in horses occurs only very rarely, but one such 
case has been reported this year. It is interesting that it 
occurred in the practice of the same veterinarian who reported 
an unusually severe case of this disease two years ago. No 
connection between the two cases can be established, however, 
as they were 10 miles apart. The case this year was in a draft 
horse stabled for some years in town and where there had 
never been any bovine animals. Unfortunately the type of 
the bacillus, whether human or bovine, was not determined. 

Avian tuberculosis is probably very prevalent among poultry, 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 55 

and is a serious menace to many flocks. The Division's office 
is, however, very seldom notified of its existence or called 
upon for advice regarding its control or extermination. 

In the late summer and early fall each year a contagious 
affection of the eyes of cattle breaks out in different sections 
of the State. If not immediately attended to, it is very apt to 
spread until all members of a herd are affected, some of which 
suffer partial or complete blindness. Not many of these out- 
breaks are reported to the Division's office, only 3 being re- 
ported this year. They are locally controlled under veterinary 
advice, and early treatment generally prevents serious results. 

Infectious pneumonia in cattle was reported in one instance, 
9 members of a herd being affected. 



The Division has frequently been called upon to make exam- 
ination of animals suspected of being affected with a contagious 
disease, and where it has been found that the animals were 
suffering from a disease not of a contagious nature. 

Laboratory Service. 

The Division of Animal Industry is most fortunate in having 
at its service the bacteriological laboratory of the State Depart- 
ment of Public Health, where are made the many examinations 
necessary to the successful prosecution of its work. 

There are many instances in contagious disease control 
where correct diagnosis can only be made in the laboratory, and 
many additional instances where diagnoses made from the ex- 
hibition of clinical symptoms or from macroscopical appearances 
post mortem are not entirely satisfactory unless corroborated 
by the findings of a trained bacteriologist. The value of this 
service as a constant auxiliary to the progress of the Division's 
work and to its maintenance at a proper standard of efficiency 
is immeasurable. We are pleased to testify to the fine spirit 
of co-operation exhibited by this organization in the solution 
of many of the Division's problems. 

One important service rendered us this year has been the 
examination of the brains of 277 animals submitted because 



56 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



suspected of rabies. Prompt and positive conclusions as to the 
existence or non-existence of this infection are necessary, and 
especially so if persons have been bitten by the suspected 
animals. Complement-fixation tests of 126 samples of blood 
taken from horses suspected of or exposed to glanders have 
been made. In addition to these principal services, 45 speci- 
mens have been examined, listed below by diseases suspected : — 





Positive. 


Negative. 


Actinomycosis 


1 


1 


Anthrax 
Carcinoma . 
















- 


3 
















1 


- 


Glanders 
















- 


1 


Hemorrhagic septicemia 
Infectious abortion 
















11 


5 
















2 


3 


Multiple infarct . 
















1 


- 


Nephritis . 
















1 


- 


Nodular disease . 
















2 


- 


Osteomyelitis 
















1 


- 


Tuberculosis 
















6 


11 


















26 


24 



Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 129, sections 
18 to 26, inclusive, of the General Laws, an order calling for 
the inspection of all cattle, sheep and swine in the State and the 
premises on which they are kept was issued by the Director 
Jan. 10, 1921, to the inspectors of animals of all towns and 
cities. 

A gross tabulation of the information contained in the re- 
ports of this inspection follows. The inspection was completed 
in a majority of the cities and towns during the late winter 
and early spring months. 



Total number of herds of cattle inspected 
Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows 
Number of neat cattle inspected 
Number of dairy cows inspected .... 
Number of herds found clean and in good condition 



31,054 

21,273 

230,981 

160,192 

29,981 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 57 



Number of stables inspected 

Number of stables properly drained 

Number of stables well ventilated 

Number of stables sufficiently lighted * 

Number of stables found clean ....... 

Number of stables in which improvements were recommended 

Number of herds of swine inspected 

Number of swine inspected 

Number of herds of swine garbage-fed 

Number of swine garbage-fed . 

Number of sheep inspected . 

Number of goats inspected 



31,791 
31,552 
31,422 
31,063 
30,703 
917 
12,151 
76,527 

1,807 
41,662 
15,503 

1,329 



An important showing in this tabulation as compared with 
that of the previous year is an increase in the total number of 
cattle of 4,181, anpl of those designated as dairy cows an in- 
crease is shown of 5,785. This increase of dairy cows, taken 
with that shown last year over the year 1919, makes a total 
increase of approximately 9,600 in the last two years. We 
have now a total of over 160,000 dairy cows in Massachusetts, 
a larger number than for many years. 

Going over the period of the last fifty years we find the 
average yearly count of dairy cows to be approximately 160,000. 
Whereas several times during that period the number has 
dropped to about 140,000, it is a cause for congratulation that 
at present we have a number well above the average for that 
long period, and, contrary to the frequently expressed opinion 
of many men supposedly well informed as to the live-stock in- 
dustry of the State, we find that our dairy animals are not 
gradually disappearing from the farms, but on the other hand 
are constantly increasing in number. 

A large decrease in the number of swine found on the farms 
is noted, amounting to about 25 per cent, and due principally 
to market conditions. These are commented upon in the sec- 
tion of this report referring to contagious diseases of that 
species. We predict that when market conditions again ap- 
proach the normal there will occur a proportionate increase 
in the number of these animals. 

The number of sheep in the State has also decreased some- 
what, undoubtedly influenced, as with swine, by the prevailing 



58 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

high prices of fodder and the low prices of marketed carcasses 
used for food. 

The preceding tabulation is compiled from the reports of 
local inspectors of animals. These consist of individual records 
of conditions at all premises where cattle, sheep and swine are 
kept. The tabulation relates not only to the animals them- 
selves but also to the sanitary condition of the barns, stables 
and yards. From the reports a fairly correct and comprehen- 
sive survey may be drawn of the general health conditions of 
the live stock on Massachusetts farms, and of the intimate 
surroundings having a bearing on the maintenance of such 
health conditions at a proper standard. The study of this sur- 
vey is of great value in formulating our general policies both 
in disease control work and for progress in the campaign for 
betterment of stabling conditions. 

Inspectors' reports also furnish the only correct "census" 
which is made of farm animals in the State, and in that connec- 
tion are of interest and value not only to the Division and the 
Department of Conservation but to other State departments, 
also to individuals and associations interested in the breeding 
and raising of live stock, or engaged in any of the many lines 
of business closely related thereto. 

In many instances cases of contagious disease not previously 
reported are found. Such are immediately quarantined and 
brought to the notice of Division officials, and an important 
work in disease control is executed. 

In many other instances unhealthful stabling conditions are 
brought to the attention of owners, and recommendations for 
improvement are suggested and insisted upon. If these are not 
attended to within a reasonable length of time, the cases are 
brought to the attention of Division officials who, either through 
the district veterinary inspector or through correspondence 
direct with the owner, endeavor to have them carried out. 
District veterinary inspectors have during the past year made 
1,294 visits to premises where insanitary conditions existed, 
and in a majority of instances full or partial correction of them 
has resulted. 

In connection with the references made to the statistics 
gathered by local inspectors of cities and towns, and the many 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 59 

ways in which such statistics are of value as well as of extreme 
interest, the importance of inspectors' services, of varied char- 
acter, in connection with sudden outbreaks of contagious 
disease, such as rabies, should be mentioned, also their work 
in identification and release of animals shipped from other 
States. These officials are a very necessary part of our organ- 
ization, and according as they are observant, prompt to act, 
and faithful in performance of their duties render the Division 
valuable aid in the execution of its work in control and eradica- 
tion of disease. 

Meetings of inspectors of animals were called at different 
points in the State for the purpose of discussing matters of 
mutual interest to them and to the Division officials. These 
meetings, in charge of Division officials, are held in the fall of 
each year. They are acknowledged by the inspectors to be of 
considerable value to them in that many questions relating to 
the performance of their duties under unusual circumstances 
are made clear. The personnel changes somewhat each year, 
a certain percentage of new men taking the places of those who 
for one cause and another are no longer in the service, and the 
meetings are to a certain extent schools of instruction for the 
recently appointed inspectors. They gather much information 
not only in the sessions but by private conversation with fellow 
inspectors of longer service and with the Division officials in 
charge. 

The meetings this year were held at different points, as 
follows: Greenfield, November 8, attendance 20; Pittsfield, 
November 9, attendance 21; Springfield, November 10, atten- 
ance 20; Worcester, November 15, attendance 32; Boston, 
November 16, attendance 82. 

Reports of Rendering Companies. 
Section 154 of chapter 111 of the General Laws requires 
rendering companies to report to this Division every animal 
received by them which is found to be infected with a conta- 
gious disease, and the information thus furnished is of value 
in bringing to the attention of the Division occasional cases of 
these diseases which otherwise would not be known. A table 
of reports of rendering companies follows: — 



60 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 







64H 


«(_, 










O 


o 


o a> 


O _T3 




CO 
O 


CO 

0) 


CO 
<D 
CO 


co ^ 


O a 

CO O 




P. 


03 


03 . 


03 o~£ 


03 a 






o 


O.jo 


O § o 


00 ^ 


Rendering Companies. 


o 


O co 


°3 


<4H 01 

O co fH 






u 


fe-g 


n 2 




M-'gg 




X2 


- 12 § 


-°JS 


•° § 3 


^^ > 




£ 


2^ 


s^ 


grS O 


s ?£ 




3 


sO 


3H 


30 > 


3h a 




fc 


z 


£ 


S 


£ 


Abbott Tallow Company, Holyoke . 


1 


1 


_ 


- 


- 


Ayer Rendering Company .... 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


C. S. Bard, Haverhill 


1 


- 


3 


- 


1 


John J. Erwin, Wayland 


2 


1 


1 


- 


- 


Home Soap Company, Millbury 


7 


- 


66 


- 


2 


Lowell Rendering Company . ... 


23 


- 


41 


- 


2 


W. H. Nankervis, Marlborough 


1 


- 


1 


- 


1 


New England Rendering Company, Brighton 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, Pea- 


4 


- 


4 


- 


1 


body. 












N. Roy & Son, South Attleborough . 


11 


- 


24 


- 


- 


Springfield Rendering Company 


1 


1 


- 


1 


- 


N. Ward Company, Boston .... 


6 


1 


6 


- 


- 


Totals '. . 


59 


5 


148 


1 


7 



Note. — All the above cases are included in statistics occurring elsewhere in this report. 

Receipts of Live Stock at the Stockyards in Boston and 
Vicinity for Twelve Months ending Nov. 30, 1921. 

For several years, at the request of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of 
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each 
month. The following table shows the receipts by months 
for the past year: — 



For Month of — 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


December 


9,242 


10,521 


28,899 


81,650 


716 


January 










8,517 


9,418 


17,221 


83,793 


779 


February 










6,973 


9,650 


23,680 


78,964 


1,339 


March . 










9,001 


20,858 


28,352 


57,944 


2,194 


April . 










7,907 


23,661 


22,567 


37,293 


1,776 


May 










11,842 


23,838 


32,167 


64,026 


2,124 


June 










8,090 


15,089 


26,958 


69,504 


1,436 


July . 










7,235 


13,471 


26,604 


79,963 


1,028 


August 










9,819 


15,305 


43,738 


72,342 


1,128 


September 










9,394 


12,696 


20,369 


46,323 


1,064 


October 










11,997 


14,568 


37,096 


44,369 


952 


November 










17,908 


17,815 


48,756 


71,223 


1,217 


Totals 


117,925 


186,890 


356,407 


787,394 


15,753 



1922.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 61 



Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 203, Acts of 1921 $3,500 00 
Expended during the year for the salary of the Director . . . 3,500 00 

Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, chap- 
ter 203, Acts of 1921 . . . . . . . . . . $8,100 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers . . . $7,522 50 
Extra clerical and stenographic service . 58 78 



Total expenditure . . $7,581 28 

Unexpended balance 518 72 



Appropriation for services other than personal, including 
printing the annual report, traveling expenses of the 
Director, and office supplies and equipment, chapter 
203, Acts of 1921 . $3,800 00 

Transferred from small item account 16 81 



,100 00 



Total amount appropriated . . . . . ' . . . . $3,816 81 
Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books and maps $119 28 

Express and messenger service . . . . ■ . . 274 44 

Postage . > . 791 42 

Printing report . . . . . . . . 160 05 

Other printing 1,155 19 

Telephone and telegrams . 648 20 

Stationery and office supplies 354 09 

Expenses of the Director 314 14 

Total expenditure $3,816 81 

Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 
agents engaged in the work of extermination of con- 
tagious diseases among domestic animals, chapter 
203, Acts of 1921 $50,000 00 

Brought forward from 1920 appropriation ... 5 00 

Total amount appropriated $50,005 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 

Services of regular agents $34,847 92 

Services of per diem agents 8,886 00 

Labor hired 106 00 

Total expenditure , . . . . . . . $43,839 92 

Unexpended balance : 6,165 08 

$50,005 00 

Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterinarians and agents, 

chapter 203, Acts of 1921 $24,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Traveling expenses of regular agents $16,568 04 

Traveling expenses of per diem agents .... 4,444 22 

Total expenditure $21,012 26 

Unexpended balance 2,987 74 

$24,000 00 



62 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 1922. 



Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle 
and horses killed, travel, when allowed, of inspectors 
of animals, incidental expenses of killing and burial, 
quarantine and emergency services, and for labora- 
tory and veterinary supplies and equipment, chap- 
ter 203, Acts of 1921 $65,000 00 

Supplementary appropriation, chapter 502, Acts of 1921 20,000 00 

Brought forward from 1920 appropriation . . . 8,757 40 

Total amount appropriated . . 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
1,955 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 

tuberculosis in 1919, 1920, 1921, paid for in 1921 . $89,081 30 
11 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 

and farcy in 1918, 1920, 1921, paid for in 1921 . 600 00 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors 301 38 

Laundry 393 35 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants .... 778 29 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc. .... 409 82 

Ear-tags, punches, chains, etc 746 53 

Expenses of killing and burial 347 50 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals . . 614 98 

Quarantine expenses 11 33 

Rent of quarantine office 120 00 

Sundries 64 50 

Total expenditures $93,468 98 

Unexpended balance 288 42 



,757 40 



$93,757 40 



The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle 
this year is $43.90. 

Two hundred and twenty-five claims for reimbursement for 
cattle condemned and killed as tuberculous during the year, 
amounting to $9,353, remain unsettled, to be paid on proof. 

Claims applying to 2 horses condemned and killed during 
the year because affected with glanders remain unsettled, the 
claims not having been proved. The amount of these claims 
is $100. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $307.49. 

Respectfully submitted, 



LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Director. 



Public Document No. 98 



Cfte Commontoealtf) of Q$ft$$atbumt$ 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1922 



Department of Conservation 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 



etary of the ! eaStfii 

Publication of this Document 

approved by the 

Commission on Administration and Finance. 



Cfte CommontocaltJ) of egagsac&umts 



DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION. 



Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Nov. 30, 1922. 

To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

I have the honor to present the following report of the work 
of this Division for the year ending Nov. 30, 1922. 

The functions of the Division of Animal Industry and the 
duties of its officials may be described as follows: Inspection 
and examination of horses, cattle, sheep and swine within the 
Commonwealth, and of the sanitary conditions under which 
they are kept; the execution of measures in prevention, con- 
trol or cure of contagious disease among them and the other 
species of domestic animals; the condemnation and slaughter 
when necessary of such as are affected with, or have been ex- 
posed to, contagious disease, to be followed by the burial or 
other disposal of their carcasses; the cleansing and disinfection 
of districts, buildings or places where contagion exists or has 
existed. Another duty is the enforcement of regulations apply- 
ing to the transportation of horses, cattle, sheep and swine from 
other States to Massachusetts, in order that their condition 
of health may be established and no prevalence of contagious 
disease be caused by the entry of infected animals. This 
regulatory work calls for the inspection and mallein testing of 
many horses, and the examination and tuberculin testing of 
such cattle as are to be used for dairy or breeding purposes 
and are not accompanied by satisfactory records of test. 
Tuberculin tests of cattle of whatever age moving interstate 
must have been made by veterinarians authorized by State 
and Federal officials to do this work, and, if regulations apply- 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

ing thereto have not been complied with in all particulars, their 
violation must be investigated and proper tests applied by 
Division inspectors. 

The maintenance of the health of the several species of 
domestic animals is of great importance for many reasons. It 
conserves the food supply of the people by bettering its quality. 
It materially affects the financial returns from the many lines 
of business with which the live-stock industry is inseparably 
connected. The important industry of dairying, to be finan- 
cially successful, must produce large amounts of milk, butter 
and cheese, and to this end healthy animals are a first and 
prime requisite. The conservation of the health of all the 
species of animals whose carcasses are used for human food — 
cattle, sheep and swine — is necessary for their successful 
propagation and their rapid development to maturity or to the 
point where they are available as human food. Numbers are 
largely increased and growth is more rapid if they can be kept 
free from contagious disease. Not only is their money value 
as food animals enhanced, but the quality and amount of 
commercial by-products, such as hides, wool, fat, fertilizer, 
and many other salable ones, are much greater from healthy 
animals than from those stunted in growth or reduced in 
numbers by prevalence of disease. 

Preservation of the health of the people is dependent in no 
small degree upon the elimination from animals of those dis- 
eases which are communicable to the human subject. Glanders, 
tuberculosis, rabies, anthrax and actinomycosis carry a high 
rate of mortality in man, and a diseased animal is often found 
to be the source of the contagion. For this reason it is vitally 
important that this class of diseases be prevented, controlled or, 
if possible, eradicated from the animal kingdom. 

Agriculture in very many of its branches is so dependent 
upon successful live-stock raising, and prospers in such a 
direct ratio to the number of animals produced and maintained 
on the farm, that there is no question as to the superior 
economy in raising and maintaining only such animals as are 
healthy. Satisfactory revenue from the investment of time, 
labor and capital in farm animals can only be returned by 
horses, cattle, sheep, swine and poultry which are sound and 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

not inhibited in their propagation, growth and economical 
use by contagious disease. 

In considering the work of this Division of the Department 
of Conservation, and in argument that it is important as a 
public State activity, we call attention to the fact that each 
succeeding year there is shown an increased dependence of the 
public for food and raiment upon domestic animals, as repre- 
sented not only by dairy products and the meat value of the 
carcasses of cattle, sheep and swine, but also by their products 
used in the manufacture of clothing, such as wool and leather. 
That their carcasses may be found fit for human food at the 
time they are converted to that use, it is necessary that the 
animals shall have, been raised under proper sanitary condi- 
tions, and maintained free of contagious disease up to that 
time. In the country as a whole the carcasses of thousands of 
animals are yearly condemned as unfit for food on account of 
lesions of contagious disease being found at time of slaughter. 
It is an economic necessity of the State and Nation that this 
great waste be reduced to a lower point than has yet been 
reached. Although progress in this direction is yearly ad- 
vancing through the active co-operation of Federal, State and 
municipal authorities to this end, the Division of Animal 
Industry recognizes that its work of elimination of animal dis- 
eases has a broad field for expansion, and that its duty in 
relation to an increased food and raiment supply for the people 
is well defined. 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Division 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1922: — 

Cattle. 

25,569 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by inspectors. 

2,458 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veteri- 
narians. 

3,019 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Federal and State 
co-operation. 

2,998 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 

8,800 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test 
records visaed. 

5,424 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other points. 

1,101 animals on 164 farms in 44 towns were given preventive treatment 
against blackleg. 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

91 animals on 15 farms in 7 towns were given preventive treatment 

against anthrax. 
66 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic 

septicemia. 
1,511 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses. 

524 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 
3,081 interstate horses were examined by inspectors. 

5 tests of whole stables were made by Division veterinarians. 
44 horses were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 

Dogs. 
1,401 cases of possible rabies in dogs were investigated. 

Swine. 

67,909 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 
7,283 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

198 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division 
veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 

Ever since the isolation of the micro-organism which is the 
cause of tuberculosis and the recognition which immediately 
followed of its transmissibility from one bovine animal to 
another, the State of Massachusetts has been engaged in an 
effort to control the disease by limiting its prevalence. It was 
early found to exist in a very large number of our herds of 
cattle and was not confined to any one section of the State. 
It was also found to be constantly increasing as circumstances 
of environment favored its spread and contributed to its devel- 
opment. It could be foreseen that its unopposed advance from 
one group of cattle to another would result in steadily increas- 
ing the losses to the live-stock industry and that this would 
also indirectly affect in a similar way many allied agricultural 
and other business interests. 

The great importance of control measures was therefore 
recognized promptly, and such measures as were in accordance 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

with the most intelligent thought of the time were devised 
and put in operation. These measures were authorized by 
the Legislature, carried out by our live-stock officials, and 
generally well supported by public sentiment. They have 
necessarily varied from time to time as developing circum- 
stances indicated change to be desirable, but the prominent 
objectives have always been an effective control of the disease 
and as much progress toward complete eradication as could 
possibly be made. 

Although it must be conceded that control of this great 
plague has to a certain degree been gained, and all the evidence 
at hand shows that the number of animals in advanced stages 
of tuberculosis has materially decreased in recent years, yet the 
extent of progress toward real eradication has been disappoint- 
ing. While by stricter quarantine measures, improved methods 
of diagnosis, "follow-up" inspections of infected herds, im- 
proved service of inspectors, encouragement of tuberculin 
testing, and complete co-operation of veterinarians we feel that 
great advance has been made in the disclosure and subsequent 
slaughter of active spreaders of the disease, we have for a long 
time realized that the situation as a whole was unsatisfactory 
and one to which any new plan promising more in the way of 
permanent improvement should be welcomed. 

In recent years many owners of valuable herds of cattle in 
this State have taken advantage of the perfected tuberculin 
test and by the service of private veterinarians have succeeded 
in ridding diseased herds of the infection and establishing 
them as tuberculosis-free. Although in many instances the 
financial loss has been heavy — too great for the ordinary 
cattle owner to withstand — such instances have clearly demon- 
strated that eradication of the disease in herd units is possible. 
The Division of Animal Industry has also shown this to be 
possible in a considerable number of instances where badly 
infected herds have in recent years been tuberculin tested, 
upon request of their owners, and freed from the disease. 
However, not until legislation could be obtained authorizing 
the payment by the Commonwealth of indemnity to owners 
of cattle slaughtered because of reaction to an official tuberculin 



8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

test could any general movement toward eradicating tuber- 
culosis by this plan be expected. The proportion of reacting 
cattle to be found in herds previously untested might in many 
instances reasonably be feared to be so large as to cause finan- 
cial disaster to their owners if indemnity were not provided 
for. 

The Legislature of 1922, in chapter 353, Acts of 1922, au- 
thorized the payment of indemnity for reacting cattle officially 
tuberculin tested in accordance with rules and regulations pre- 
scribed by the Director of Animal Industry, and later appro- 
priated a limited amount of money therefor. 

This new law, which became effective Aug. 1, 1922, put in 
operation a plan for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis 
radically different from anything attempted in Massachusetts 
during recent years. Although the Division of Animal Industry 
had tuberculin tested a great many herds of cattle at owners' 
request, it had never before been authorized to pay for the 
animals which reacted to the test and were slaughtered. When 
the new law authorizing payment of indemnities went into 
effect, many applications for the official test were already on 
file. I The Federal government had agreed to co-operate with 
the State in doing the testing and in the payment of indemni- 
ties, provided their so-called " tuberculosis-free accredited herd 
plan," now in operation in every other State in the Union, 
were adopted and its requirements properly protected by our 
rules and regulations for carrying on the work. To such owners 
as desired the test for their herds this co-operative plan was 
offered for their acceptance. Its financial advantages were 
readily seen, and thus far all testing has been carried on under 
this plan, although owners have the privilege of having their 
animals tested under the provisions of the Massachusetts law 
alone if they so elect. 

The new plan at once became so popular that within a few 
weeks of its first application the appropriation for State in- 
demnities — $15,000 for the balance of the fiscal year ending 
Nov. 30, 1922 — had been exhausted. This was largely due to 
the high percentage of reactors disclosed by the test and the 
fact that so large a proportion of them were pure-bred cattle, 
for which the indemnity is twice that paid for grade animals. 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 

An additional appropriation of $5,000 was obtained by transfer 
from other funds and authorized by action of the Governor and 
the Executive Council. This additional appropriation allowed 
the continuance of the work which had necessarily been sus- 
pended by exhaustion of the original appropriation. 

Owing to the popularity of the new plan and the fact that 
present indications point to its rapid growth in favor, it is 
estimated that a much larger appropriation for 1923 will be 
required to comply with the requests of cattle owners for this 
service. It is hoped, however, that a widespread elimination of 
tuberculous animals by means of a general adoption of the 
accredited herd plan will result in a progressive decrease of the 
present prevalence of the disease, and as a consequence the 
present large amount annually expended will eventually be 
proportionately decreased. For the past thirty years the State 
has averaged to spend $50,000 annually in payment for physi- 
cal cases of bovine tuberculosis, and in 1921 the payment 
amounted to nearly $90,000, an amount which of itself suggests 
the necessity for adopting any new plan of extermination 
which may promise relief of the present situation. 

For such bovine animals as have been found by physical 
examination alone to be affected with tuberculosis, the maxi- 
mum amount to be paid by the Commonwealth for any one 
case has recently been $60. The Legislature of 1922, how- 
ever, reduced this maximum to $25, and it further provided 
that after Aug. 1, 1923, no indemnity whatever can be paid 
for this class of cases. 

In our opinion the reduction mentioned, from $60 to $25, 
was wise and the present maximum of $25 takes care of 
the situation in a reasonable way, with a fair protection of 
owners' interests, and will immediately reduce the amount 
of this item of expenditure to less than one-half its present 
total. The effect, however, of withdrawal on Aug. 1, 1923, 
of all reimbursement for cattle condemned on physical exam- 
ination may prove to be unfavorable to final eradication of 
the disease. 

If an owner cannot be reimbursed by the Commonwealth 
for a tuberculous animal which is condemned on official ex- 
amination, it is of no pecuniary advantage to him to report 



10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

it, and he will fail to do so in most instances. He dislikes the 
publicity of the matter, which cannot be entirely avoided, 
and will probably do one of two things, — either he will kill 
and bury the diseased animal on his own place, or he will sell 
it for whatever he can get. 

In the first instance, because not reported, no veterinary 
examination of the remainder of his herd will be made for the 
purpose of disclosing additional cases which may be as neces- 
sary to be disposed of as was the original case. No disin- 
fection of the premises where the diseased animal was kept will 
be ordered, as is now found to be necessary in order to prevent 
further spread of the disease, and which order under present 
regulations must be carried out before the owner can obtain 
reimbursement for his condemned animal. If he sells the dis- 
eased animal, for which he could probably get only a small 
price, on leaving his premises it may carry the disease to other 
cattle and perhaps will be used as a cheap milk supply for a 
family of children. That portion of the population ignorant 
or unaware of the danger of milk from tuberculous cows is a 
market for this class of animals, and it would seem that, out 
of consideration for the public health alone, traffic in them 
should be prevented. 

In our opinion the wisdom of the policy of no reimbursement 
for cattle condemned because affected with tuberculosis may 
well be questioned. Granted it will immediately effect a sav- 
ing of State money, yet looking to the future, and considering 
not only the unhampered spread of the disease we are spending 
money to control but also' the danger from tuberculous milch 
cows to the public health, would it not be better for the Com- 
monwealth to buy and bury these diseased animals rather than 
allow them to spread the infection broadcast? A very small 
indemnity per head would result in their being reported to the 
proper officials, and their being reported is the only thing 
necessary to their proper disposal, because they then receive 
official attention and are promptly slaughtered. 

During the year just closed we have followed the same 
policy of disclosing as many physical cases of tuberculosis as 
possible by requesting an early examination by local inspec- 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 

tors, the quarantining of such animals as showed any sus- 
picious symptoms, thorough physical examination of them by 
veterinary inspectors, condemnation and slaughter of all posi- 
tive cases, a "follow-up" inspection of every herd in which 
any case has been found, and finally the cleansing and disin- 
fection of infected premises. 

This policy in all its details has been carried out during re- 
cent years and has been the one relied upon to effect a control 
of the disease and keep it within reasonable limitations. It is 
undoubtedly true, however, that final extermination cannot 
be expected or satisfactory progress made in that direction so 
long as tuberculous animals are allowed to remain in a herd 
until they show clinical symptoms sufficiently well marked to 
arouse the suspicion of the owner or of the local inspector of 
animals. 

The diagnostic value of the tuberculin test carefully applied 
and interpreted by competent veterinarians is very generally 
recognized, and should be taken advantage of at every oppor- 
tunity for the purpose of disclosing the non-clinical cases. 
Without its aid satisfactory control of the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis among our cattle is not possible. The application of 
official tests at request of cattle owners has shown a steady 
increase each succeeding year, but the number of animals so 
tested has been such a small percentage of the total number in 
the State that no appreciable effect on eradication has been 
noticed. Now that it is possible under the new law enacted 
by the 1922 Legislature to pay indemnity for cattle which 
react to an official tuberculin test, and believing that the ad- 
vantages of service under the provisions of this law will be 
widely sought for by cattle owners, it is confidently hoped that 
substantial decrease in the prevalence of the disease will soon 
be evident. 

The amount of tuberculin testing which will be done, and 
the number of cases of tuberculosis which will thereby be re- 
moved from our herds, will necessarily depend upon the amount 
of money appropriated therefor by the Legislature. It would 
seem to be an important public work of conservation, not only 
on account of its intimate relation to the live-stock industry as 



12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

a commercial business of large proportions, but as an aid in 
the maintenance of a normal food supply for the people and 
directly in protection of the public health. 

Tuberculin test reactors appear this year as a greater factor 
than ever before in our statistics. Comparing the last five 
years' records, we find the percentage of reactors to total 
number killed as follows: 1918, 23.5 per cent; 1919, 28.1 per 
cent; 1920, 33.4 per cent; 1921, 30 per cent; 1922, 38.7 per 
cent. In other words, more than one-third of all the tubercu- 
lous cattle killed under our supervision this year were reactors 
to a tuberculin test and killed for that reason. Very few of 
these cases could have been detected by physical examination. 

Division inspectors have tested 2,458 head of cattle on 53 
farms, 276 reactors being found. Federal inspectors have 
tested 5,120 animals, 101 reactors being found. Tests by 
Federal and State co-operation, under the provisions of chapter 
353, Acts of 1922, were applied to 3,019 cattle on 127 farms, 
666 reactors being found and 26 suspects. Private veterinarians 
have reported tests of 3,606 cattle on 204 premises, among 
which 824 reactors were found. 

The tests recorded as " co-operative ',' were made after the 
passage of the new legislation referred to and by agreement 
with the United States Bureau of Animal Industry inspector 
in charge of tuberculosis eradication in this section of New 
England. 

Referring to what is really a new plan of tuberculosis eradica- 
tion in this State, under the 1922 legislation mentioned above, 
special attention may be called to a few significant facts that 
appear in the record of- this work. In the short time the plan 
has been in operation — four months — more herds of cattle 
have been tuberculin tested than during any other entire year 
in the recent history of the State's work. The number of 
tests has increased each succeeding month, the month of Octo- 
ber only being an exception on account of exhaustion of the 
first appropriation for indemnities. A rapid decrease in the 
percentage of reactors found — from 27 per cent in the first 
month of operation to less than 17 per cent in the fourth 
month — indicates that some badly infected herds were the 
first ones to be submitted for test, and that their owners had 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 

been cognizant of the real conditions and had only been await- 
ing legislation more favorable to the disposal of reactors to the 
test. 

In comparing the total reactions of pure-bred cattle with 
those of grade animals, we find them to be 17.8 per cent of the 
former and 25 per cent of the latter. The relative difference is 
not as great as might be expected considering the extra care 
given to, and precautions taken with, the more valuable 
animals of pure breeds, and that grade cows constitute the 
larger portions of herds in which dairying of an intensive 
character is carried on, in some instances even to the extent 
of rapidly lowering vitality and resistance to disease. 

It must be said in passing that the number of cattle tested 
to date is not great enough to permit of an estimate of the 
prevalence of tuberculosis among Massachusetts cattle as shown 
by the tuberculin test, and that an entire year's work is neces- 
sary as the basis of a reasonable appraisal of the real situation. 

Interstate Cattle. 

In accordance with present regulations of the Federal gov- 
ernment, all dairy or breeding cattle of whatever age shipped 
interstate must have passed a tuberculin test applied by veter- 
inarians approved by the live-stock officials of the State where 
tested and by the chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

A modification of this regulation is, however, applicable to 
cattle shipped to so-called "public stockyards" which are under 
the supervision of Bureau officials and where the animals can 
be tested upon arrival. On July 1, 1919, the Brighton cattle 
market was designated as "public stockyards," and such of the 
dairy or breeding cattle in the weekly shipments to that point 
as have not been tested before shipment are tested by inspectors 
of the Bureau of Animal Industry and of this Division working 
in co-operation. Check tests are also made from time to time 
on interstate cattle supposed to have been properly tested 
before shipment, in order that the quality of this work done 
in other States may be determined. 

Additional quarantine stations for the receipt of animals for 
Brighton market are maintained at Watertown and Somerville, 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

at which points many of the cattle destined for that market 
are unloaded. The protection of Massachusetts cattle in- 
terests at these points is carefully attended to by our force of 
inspectors, and we feel sure that no cattle which can be sus- 
pected of tuberculosis are released for any purpose except 
immediate slaughter. 

Brighton stockyards being the only point in the State to 
which untested cattle may be shipped, in strict compliance with 
Federal regulations, our former work of testing at other points 
is reduced to a minimum and consists only of testing such 
animals as may arrive not accompanied by a record of tuber- 
culin test. A few violations of the regulations occur, some of 
them through ignorance of Federal and State requirements, and 
others in willful disregard of them. These latter cases are in- 
vestigated when reported and prosecution in the courts is insti- 
tuted if deemed advisable. 

There have been received at the Brighton quarantine station 
during the year 11,682 head of dairy cattle. Of these, 8,800 
were accepted on approved records of test, and 2,882 were 
tuberculin tested after arrival. The majority of these animals 
were released for sale, a few being disposed of for slaughter. 
At other points in the State 5,585 dairy cattle were received, 
making the total number of interstate dairy cattle recorded 
17,267. 

Glanders. 

The prevalence of this disease among the equine species in 
Massachusetts is apparently under perfect control at the present 
time and all indications warrant the expectation of complete 
extermination in the near future. 

Steady progressive decrease in prevalence is shown from 
year to year since 1913. In that year was reached the peak 
of what had been a gradual increase in number of cases during a 
long period. During that one year 1,084 positive cases were 
killed, 556 of which were found in the city of Boston. 

During the present year 21 cases have occurred in the whole 
State, only one of which was in Boston. Of these 21 cases, 
10 were contact cases taken from two stables in each of which 
one clinical case occurred, and the others were disclosed by 
application of the mallein test to all the animals. The record 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 

this year shows ten more cases than in 1921, for which increase 
the two stables mentioned are apparently responsible, and the 
increase therefore does not show that the general situation is 
to be regarded as indicating any serious change. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the prevalence of this disease 
is low, and unimportant from a disease control standpoint, it 
is necessary to closely watch the situation and if possible keep 
it at its present satisfactory aspect. We are consequently 
applying the same regulations to interstate traffic in horses and 
mules, and are pursuing the same methods of handling out- 
breaks of the disease as have been found effective in lowering 
the high record of 1913 to its present figure. 

Although the horse as a necessity in many lines of business 
and as a means of healthful recreation and pleasure has been 
to some extent replaced by motor vehicles, it has been conclu- 
sively shown that he cannot be entirely dispensed with in any 
of these lines of usefulness. He is still the economic power 
for the average New England farm and for many lines of com- 
mercial business. That he is indispensable in military opera- 
tions has been conclusively shown by his service in the late 
war. The saddle horse is by no means decreasing in numbers, 
but, on the other hand, has returned to and is now exceeding 
his former popularity. This is also true of the light driving 
animal used for speed purposes. Wherever animal expositions 
are held the horses of all the different types — draft, coach, 
saddle and speed — receive the greatest attention and win the 
admiration of the larger number of spectators. 

In recent years the horse has become of priceless value in 
the field of preventive medicine, and is now used in large 
numbers for the production of various biological preparations 
found effective in the prevention and cure of many diseases of 
animals and man. He must therefore still be produced in 
considerable numbers and be maintained free from contagious 
disease. 

The successful methods by which the number of cases of 
glanders has been rapidly reduced in the past few years, and 
which have apparently solved what was formerly a difficult 
problem of disease control, may be briefly referred to as 
follows : — 



16 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Immediate quarantine of all reported cases; prompt killing 
of all clinical cases, followed by disinfection of the premises 
where kept, of the blacksmith shops where shod, and of water- 
ing troughs where they were in the habit of drinking; examina- 
tion and re-examination of all contact animals, together with 
application of the several diagnostic tests when necessary; 
extension of the plan of testing whole stables; closing of public 
watering troughs in sections where an outbreak of the disease 
occurs; testing of all horses and mules shipped interstate from 
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island, unless 
accompanied by satisfactory records of recent tests. 

There were 72 horses reported during the year as suspected 
of glanders, and these, with 151 contact animals, were sub- 
jected to the mallein test. Of this number, 21 were killed as 
positive cases; 2 died and 1 killed, no lesions of glanders being 
found, and 199 were released from observation. 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal 
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations 
in many cities and towns of the State have, through their 
agents, always been of material aid to the Division in the work 
of controlling glanders. Their close observation of working 
animals of all classes has in the past, when the disease was 
more prevalent, brought to light many showing suspicious 
symptoms, which they have promptly reported to this Division, 
and many of the animals so reported have proved to be posi- 
tive cases of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work and destroying those which, on 
account of extreme age or poor condition, are no longer useful 
has undoubtedly been a factor in the suppression of glanders, 
as such animals are very susceptible to infection. 

Two hundred and seventy-nine samples of blood, taken from 
188 horses during the year, were examined in the laboratory 
by the complement-fixation test. The ophthalmic mallein test 
has been applied to 196 State and 145 interstate horses during 
the year. 

There were 3,229 horses shipped into Massachusetts from 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

the States of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, accompanied by permits from the Director of Animal 
Industry. All of these horses were released after physical 
examination or application of the ophthalmic mallein test. 

It is worthy of notice that no interstate horses were found 
during the past year to have been affected with glanders. 
Many of the animals brought from the above-mentioned States 
are of the better class, being highly bred horses used for car- 
riage work and breeding purposes. The second-hand horses, 
which are trafficked in and sent from the markets of one State 
to those of another for purpose of public sale, have been 
specially watched on account of their being considered more 
liable to be subjects of contagious disease than the higher class 
animals, and if not accompanied by a satisfactory certificate of 
test have been tested on arrival by inspectors of the Division. 

Rabies. 

Rabies, a specific infectious disease, is prevalent in practically 
all civilized countries and especially so in the United States. 

Its prevalence in Massachusetts is one of the most serious 
problems with which the Division of Animal Industry has to 
contend, and its rapid increase in the past two years has called 
attention to the importance of marshaling every available 
force which can be employed to limit its further extension. 
When once established in a community, it maintains itself for 
a considerable time, and its complete eradication requires much 
well-directed effort. The control of its prevalence, however, 
is ordinarily accomplished fairly promptly in a community 
where it breaks out if all agencies can be lined up against it 
and if these function thoroughly and systematically. We find 
that it progressively spreads from one town or city to another 
until gradually many different sections are involved. In addi- 
tion to the loss of animals, some of them highly valued for one 
reason or another, the prevalence of rabies always carries with 
it more or less danger to human life. As the restraint of 
animals is necessary to its suppression, regulatory measures 
are called for, and these are the cause of much trouble, expense 
and irritative inconvenience to the dog-owning public. 

Rabies is primarily a disease of animals, all the various 



18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

species being susceptible to it. The dog, however, is the one 
most often affected and is the chief factor in its spread from 
section to section. On account of its ready communicability 
to the human subject and the tendency of rabid animals to 
attack persons, the prompt application of all control methods 
becomes a public health duty, and should be considered a very 
important one. During the prevalence of rabies it occasionally 
happens that persons are bitten by the infected dogs, and in 
many instances the bite is inflicted before the animal shows 
sufficiently well-marked symptoms of the disease to be sus- 
pected or to put a person on guard against him. In such 
unfortunate occurrences, as well as in cases where persons are 
not able to avoid the attack of a furiously rabid animal, the 
Pasteur treatment in prevention of the disease is available, 
and if promptly applied is successful in practically 100 per cent 
of the cases. 

As a protective health measure all dogs, whether suspected 
of rabies or not, which have bitten persons should be restrained 
and confined at least fourteen days for observation, in order 
that it may be positively determined whether or not they were 
infected at the time the biting occurred. If a local inspector 
or the Division of Animal Industry is notified, such animals 
are officially quarantined for that period and then released if 
no symptoms of rabies have developed. 

Based on the successful prevention in man, treatment in 
prevention of rabies in animals is now available and has already 
been taken advantage of in many instances with success. The 
immunization of animals against the disease, conferring absolute 
protection to them if unfortunately exposed to the infection, 
has been recently developed to what is thought to be a suffi- 
ciently effective stage to offer it for practical use. Many 
owners of valuable dogs, when there is an unusual prevalence 
of rabies, are having their animals protected by this means. 
If immunization can be proved practicable by further experi- 
ence in this direction, and if all dogs can be treated, it may be 
that the problem of how to exterminate rabies will be solved. 
The elimination of the unlicensed dogs will be first necessary, 
and this should be attended to now by enforcement of present 
laws. 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 

The ownerless or stray dog is generally the first rabid animal 
to be found in any community, and the extent to which he may 
have spread the infection depends on how soon he has been 
apprehended after he developed the disease. No one being 
interested in the whereabouts or physical condition of the 
ownerless dog, he becomes an active spreader of the disease 
before attention is centered on him. It will thus be seen that 
a more rigid enforcement of the dog laws would be valuable 
assistance in the suppression of rabies. 

Division records this year show a larger number of cases re- 
ported than in any year since 1908. In 1916 the lowest preva- 
lence for ten years was recorded, since which time there has 
been a gradual increase in their numbers. It is probable that 
we have not yet reached the peak of the upward trend of preva- 
lence as yearly recorded, on account of the vast amount of con- 
tagion existing all over the country, the invasion of Massa- 
chusetts by it having been forecasted in our reports. 

Local inspectors of animals are familiar with the situation 
and are specially advised as to the importance of early quaran- 
tine, thorough investigation and prompt detailed reports to 
this office. 

Following is a general outline of the Division's present 
methods in rabies control work: — 

Upon report being made to the Division that a person has 
been bitten by a dog, the inspector of animals of the town or 
city in which it occurs is ordered to make an examination of 
the animal, and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it 
restrained for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of 
observation. The restraint for this length of time is deemed 
necessary for the reason that competent authorities have shown 
that in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies 
may communicate the infection fourteen days before the 
animal shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this period 
no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may be 
released. In case a person is bitten by a dog which, upon 
examination by the inspector of animals or any other person, 
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, or there 
is a history of its having been in contact with a rabid animal, 
the dog in either case is immediately confined in strict quaran- 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

tine. If it is subsequently killed or dies, its head is sent at 
once to the Division's office, and a laboratory examination of 
the brain is made for the purpose of positively determining 
whether or not the animal was affected with the disease. 
Information as to the laboratory findings is promptly com- 
municated to the person or persons who have been bitten. 
The State Department of Public Health is given the informa- 
tion received in every case of dog bite reported to this office, 
whether the bite has been inflicted by an animal suspected of 
rabies or not. We also order the local inspector of animals 
not only to ascertain the names of all persons who have been 
bitten by dogs suspected of rabies but to find out if animals 
have also been bitten,* and if so to place the same in quarantine 
for a period of at least ninety days. All dogs which are found 
to have been in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not 
it appears that they have been bitten by it, are also placed 
in quarantine for the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist in 
any town or city, and the selectmen or the mayor or board 
of aldermen have not taken any special action in the emergency, 
we request them to issue a restraining order, under the provi- 
sions of section 167 of chapter 140 of the General Laws. Such 
an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals to 
their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- 
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more 
effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 
which compels owners only to muzzle the animals but not 
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way 
get the muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muzzled 
dog at large may therefore become much more dangerous than 
an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon owner's 
premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs found 
running at large while a restraining order issued by town or 
city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance of a 
warrant for the same to a police officer. 

Our force of district agents, all of whom are veterinarians 
and located in different parts of the State, together with the 
local inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in 
every city and town of the State, constitutes an organization 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 

by which effective local control of an oubtreak of this disease 
should be accomplished within a reasonably short time. 

In many communities, however, where no attention is given 
to the enforcement of the dog license laws, and numberless 
stray dogs run at large without restraint of any kind, an out- 
break of rabies becomes a serious matter. Active co-operation 
by local authorities is immediately necessary, both in enforce- 
ment of the dog laws now on the statute books and the issu- 
ance of such additional orders as the situation demands. 
Selectmen, mayors and aldermen should at once use the powers 
vested in them by law to aid in controlling a dangerous situa- 
tion. 

Where our organization receives co-operation of this kind, — ■ 
namely, the issuing of local restraining orders and the calling 
upon constables and police officers for the continuous enforce- 
ment of these orders without fear or favor in a strictly im- 
partial manner, — the prevalence of rabies is quickly limited. 
During the past year 30 such restraining orders were issued 
by local town or city authorities. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1922, 1,411 animals were 
reported to the Division for diagnosis, observation or quaran- 
tine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 44 were 
brought forward from the year 1921. Of these 1,411 animals, 
452 dogs, 6 cattle, 4 cats, 1 horse and 1 goat were proved to 
be positive cases of rabies. 

During the year the Division received reports of 715 persons 
having been bitten by dogs, 8 persons bitten by cats, and 1 by 
a horse. The majority of the animals which inflicted the bites 
were afterwards released as showing no symptoms of rabies. 
Of the 1,411 animals reported for observation, diagnosis or 
quarantine, 95 dogs were, as far as could be ascertained, owner- 
less and unlicensed, 50 of which proved to be positive cases of 
the disease. 

There has been noticed a wide variance in the incubation 
period of rabies, the larger number of cases, however, showing 
it to be between the tenth and twentieth day. Exceptional 
cases have shown this period to extend for a very much longer 
time. There is a record of one dog which developed rabies 
at the end of a period of fourteen months after having been 



22 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

bitten, and one cow which developed rabies at the end of 
nineteen months after being bitten. Our quarantine period is 
fixed at ninety days, that being considered a safe time at which 
to release contact dogs not showing symptoms of the disease. 
The cases having a longer period of incubation are so few 
that they should be considered exceptions. 

Hog Oholera. 

An important work which has been carried on by the Divi- 
sion for several years is the treatment of swine in prevention 
of hog cholera. This disease formerly decimated our herds to 
such an alarming extent, often taking every animal in a herd 
within a short period of time, that it threatened to destroy 
the industry of swine production, especially in communities 
where garbage was depended upon for the principal article of 
their food. Household garbage if in good condition makes a 
satisfactory ration for swine, containing all the elements neces- 
sary for perfect nutrition. Furthermore its use as food for 
swine is an economic utilization of -a product which formerly 
was entirely wasted in many communities. However, on ac- 
count of this material being a recognized carrier of the infec- 
tion of hog cholera, the only animals to which it could be fed 
with safety were those which were carrying a natural immu- 
nity to the disease, and such were few in number. 

On the discovery made by Dorset and Niles, of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry, that swine could be arti- 
ficially immunized against this infection, the way to control 
the ravages of hog cholera seemed clear, and in recent years 
very great success in many parts of the world has attended the 
work suggested by this discovery. 

In Massachusetts preventive treatment of this kind has been 
carried on continuously under supervision of this Division 
since its inception in 1914. Its great economic value is beyond 
question, and as a work of conservation ranks next in impor- 
tance to that which we are doing in control of contagious dis- 
eases of cattle. 

Other diseases of swine are now being given very much more 
attention than formerly, and no longer is it the custom of swine 
owners to ignore an unusual death rate in their herds. The 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 

success of hog cholera prevention work has probably been a 
factor in changing this custom. It frequently happens that 
in our supervision of hog cholera work we have brought to our 
notice the prevalence of another contagion and are able to 
render valuable service in its control. Among such other dis- 
eases may be mentioned hemorrhagic septicemia, commonly 
called " swine plague," necrotic enteritis, and mixed infections 
of various kinds. 

Department restrictions are found to be necessary in the 
administration of the so-called simultaneous treatment in pre- 
vention of hog cholera, for the reason that the active virus of 
the disease is used in that treatment. Its careless use would 
result in the spread of the disease rather than its prevention. 
Consequently the administration of this treatment is limited 
by department order to veterinarians holding a permit of the 
Director and subject to his orders. The sale of the prepara- 
tions used — anti-hog cholera serum and hog cholera virus — is 
also regulated by the same order. 

The Division started its work in 1914 under this plan of 
supervision and regulation, and the policy instituted at that 
time has been continued in this direction without change. A 
further precaution has been the testing by our own methods of 
the potency of serum and the virulency of virus, although they 
are manufactured under Bureau of Animal Industry license. 
All such products shipped to this State are held and stored 
in refrigeration under our control and direction at the expense 
of the manufacturers. 

We think that all details of our plan are well taken care of, 
and that the resulting work has proved the soundness of our 
original policies relating thereto. 

We respectfully submit that in our opinion any proposed 
legislation to modify present methods is in opposition to public 
interest as a whole and the swine industry in particular. 

Our records show that a total of 67,909 treatments have been 
administered to swine in 655 herds, in prevention and cure of 
hog cholera. This work has been done this year in 181 cities 
and towns, necessitating 1,709 visits by one or more inspectors. 
In addition there were 50 visits made to places where the swine 
were not treated for one of the following reasons: the animals 



24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

in some instances were so badly infected as to preclude all 
chance of recovery and their treatment would involve too 
great waste of time and material; in other cases the trouble 
was found to be some non-contagious disease, not calling for 
State service; again, the sanitary conditions necessary to suc- 
cessful work could not be established; and in a few cases 
owners withdrew their requests for treatment of their animals 
after arrival of the veterinarians at the premises. 

An analysis of our record of work this year shows the follow- 
ing outstanding facts which are worthy of notice: the number of 
treatments administered has increased by 13,563, which brings 
the total number to within 166 of our highest record made in 
1919. The analysis shows further that while our number of 
treatments has increased there has been a decrease in the preva- 
lence of the infection. This indicates that swine owners are 
realizing that the best way to escape the ravages of hog cholera 
in their herds is to have their animals given preventive treat- 
ment while healthy rather than attempt to cure them after the 
disease has appeared. 

While satisfactory control of hog cholera has been estab- 
lished, complete eradication cannot be looked forward to with 
any degree of confidence, as the very nature of the infection 
and the unfavorable conditions under which the susceptible 
animals are maintained preclude any such result of even the 
most carefully planned and well-executed measures. 

Closely supervised, well-regulated service by a well-organized 
unit responsible to a central head will undoubtedly control 
the disease within reasonable limits. The time has not yet 
arrived to relax in any particular the restrictions now applying 
to the sale and use of hog-cholera serum and virus, — products 
which in their careful administration by well-trained men make 
for positive control of the disease, but in the hands of untrained 
men not responsible to any authority become a certain means 
of spreading the disease and defeating the purpose of their 
manufacture and use. 

The mortality rates computed from our record show in a 
concrete way the quality of work done; it is generally recog- 
nized that careless administration, faulty technique and errors 
in judgment are the principal factors in increasing the mortality 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 

rate. The record of this work in Massachusetts over a period 
of years will favorably compare with that of any yet published. 
Our work has always commanded special attention and has 
brought forth much commendation by interested observers. 

The conditions under which swine are kept, while found to 
be somewhat improved from year to year, are nevertheless far 
from what they ought to be. We have found in many instances 
where serious losses of animals have occurred that the primary 
causative factor has been unsanitary or poor housing conditions, 
which have lowered the vitality and the normal resistance of 
animals to disease, allowing bacterial invasion a favorable 
opening. Such conditions also seriously handicap recovery 
from disease and delay the elimination of infection. While 
perfect sanitary conditions are hard to obtain in piggeries as 
generally managed, yet very great improvement can be made 
on many premises, and would be followed by results which 
undoubtedly would be evident in more pigs, healthier pigs, 
and consequently a better financial showing. 

By reason of our work in the control of hog cholera we have 
been brought in close touch with many other disease condi- 
tions, some of which are of serious menace to the success of 
swine production. In their clinical aspects many so closely 
resemble hog cholera that differential diagnoses are difficult 
and only arrived at after considerable investigation both in the 
field and in the laboratory. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Swine. — This is an infectious 
disease of swine which prevails more or less extensively from 
time to time, and which often resembles hog cholera in the ex- 
hibition of its clinical symptoms. A differential diagnosis be- 
tween the two diseases is often difficult even by our field veter- 
inarians, who by daily experience are familiar with both. It is 
generally necessary to carefully consider all the circumstances 
surrounding an outbreak, such as its history, clinical symptoms 
exhibited and post-mortem appearances, before positively 
deciding which of the two infections is present. Frequently 
they are found coexistent, and it must then be decided if pos- 
sible which is the primary and which the secondary factor, in 
order that a proper line of treatment may be followed. 

Therefore our work in the prevention, control and cure of 



26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

hemorrhagic septicemia in swine is intimately connected with 
our original hog cholera control, and the field work is attended 
to by the same veterinarians. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the use of various biological 
preparations for the prevention and cure of hemorrhagic septi- 
cemia is in no way restricted by law or by Division order, and 
that they may be lawfully used by any registered veterinarian, 
our field men treat many animals affected with this disease on 
account of its being the cause of outbreaks which were at first 
thought to be due to hog cholera and for which emergency 
their services were requested. 

During the year 7,283 treatments in the prevention or cure 
of hemorrhagic septicemia have been administered, and the 
indications are that this work will necessarily be continued the 
coming year. 

Various mixed infections have been encountered in our swine 
work, and have been treated as circumstances indicated to be 
advisable. Their widely varied combinations and what they 
signify constitute one of the principal present-day studies of 
persons interested in these infections from a scientific stand- 
point. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — Nearly all the species of domestic animals are 
susceptible to this disease, and the infection is transmissible 
to man under certain conditions of actual contact, such as the 
handling of carcasses, hides or wool of infected animals. 

In some previous years there have been numerous cases 
among cattle, but our record for the past two years shows 
practically no prevalence in bovine animals. During 1921 only 
one case was recorded and none in 1922. Such a record is 
remarkable considering that we have a number of farms which 
are classified as infected with anthrax, the germs or spores of 
which live in the soil for a long time, and are therefore to be 
considered as a possible source of an outbreak for many years. 
On these farms the bovine animals are regularly given preven- 
tive treatment every year, the immunity given by this treat- 
ment being depended upon as effective for at least twelve 
months. The low incidence of the disease, as shown by the 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 

records of recent years, indicates that the policy of yearly 
preventive treatment is effective to a marked degree and 
should be continued. 

During the year preventive treatment has been administered 
to 91 cattle and 44 horses on 15 different premises located in 
7 towns. 

Seven authenticated cases of anthrax have occurred in horses 
this year, all in the same town but on three different premises. 
Investigation of these cases indicates that in all probability 
they arose from a common source. The first animals to con- 
tract the disease had been stabled for a few days in a barn 
which had been unused for a long time. Undoubtedly this 
building was infected, as some evidence — based on rumor alone, 
however — was to the effect that a number of " mysterious 
deaths" of horses had occurred on these premises some years 
ago, and for that reason the building had never since been 
occupied until the horses mentioned were stabled there tem- 
porarily. This building has since been thoroughly disinfected 
under the supervision of a district agent of the Division and 
placed in permanent quarantine. 

Our method of procedure in reported anthrax is as follows: 
Every report is immediately investigated and subsequent action 
is taken as deemed advisable by consideration of the facts dis- 
closed. Positive diagnosis is first necessary; and as the animals 
generally either are found dead or die before arrival of a veteri- 
narian or Division inspector, a post-mortem examination would 
ordinarily be depended upon to confirm the suspicions of 
anthrax. As post-mortem appearances in this disease are often 
not sufficiently characteristic to justify a positive diagnosis, 
and as the opening of a carcass allows the body fluids to escape 
and possibly spread the infection, it is advised that the sus- 
pected carcass be not opened, but that a specimen of blood 
be drawn from the cadaver onto a piece of glass and then 
allowed to dry in the air. If this specimen is not badly con- 
taminated by careless preparation, and is promptly forwarded 
to a laboratory, there is no difficulty in determining whether or 
not anthrax bacilli are present. 

A field diagnosis or suspicion of anthrax having been con- 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

firmed, preventive measures at once follow. They consist of 
proper disposal of diseased carcasses, disinfection of premises, 
and preventive inoculation of susceptible and exposed animals. 

To prevent infection spreading from a carcass it should be 
burned or deeply buried, covered with quicklime. Anthrax 
bacilli or their spores if not destroyed may continue to infect 
soil for a long time. In many instances these organisms have 
been found to remain active for a number of years. We 
recommend that any contaminated ground be burned over and 
the surface area above a buried carcass be fenced and burned 
over yearly. Any contaminated portions of buildings if wooden 
should be torn out and burned, and if concrete should be 
thoroughly disinfected. 

The remaining animals of the herd should be at once re- 
moved to other buildings or areas, and the apparently healthy 
ones inoculated in prevention of the disease. Animals already 
affected are sometimes successfully treated, but ordinarily the 
disease runs such a rapid course that death takes place before 
the animal is noticed to be seriously sick, and our efforts are 
consequently limited to protection of the animals not showing 
symptoms. Although a certain percentage of deaths may 
reasonably be expected to occur among the inoculated animals, 
we find in actual experience that fatalities are very few. 

Preventive inoculation is supposed to confer immunity for 
a period of at least twelve months. At premises where an 
outbreak has occurred and there is reason to fear permanent 
infection, it is advised that all susceptible animals be given a 
preventive inoculation each succeeding year for a certain period. 

Blackleg. — This infectious disease generally occurs during 
the pasture season only, as its causative organisms live in the 
soil, where their resistant spores preserve their ability to infect 
animals for a long time even under severe conditions of weather. 
The infection is not believed to readily pass from one animal 
to another, but prevails in numbers of animals only when all 
are exposed to the same source of contagion. This explains 
the fact that we seldom have an outbreak occur during that 
portion of the year when the animals are stabled. 

It is readily prevented by treatment with certain biological 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

products prepared for the purpose and which confer an im- 
munity lasting at least for an entire season. As the disease 
seldom affects adult cattle, only those under three years of age 
are treated in prevention. 

As we have many farms in the State where blackleg has 
been known to exist at one time or another, we recommend the 
preventive treatment every season of all the young cattle on 
these premises, and the best time to do this is of course just 
previous to the turning out of the animals in the spring. 

On the occurrence of an outbreak all the susceptible stock 
should be immediately given the preventive treatment and 
removed from the pasture in which the disease appeared, as an 
extra precaution. It should always be considered a suspicious 
circumstance if young cattle have been found dead in pasture 
from no readily explainable cause, as undoubtedly blackleg 
has killed the animals in many of these instances. 

The preventive treatment of young cattle against this dis- 
ease is a service rendered by Division inspectors free of ex- 
pense to owners. It is quite generally availed of, and during 
the year the treatment has been administered to 1,101 animals 
on 164 farms located in 44 different towns. 

This year's records compared with 1921 show 36 fewer 
animals treated on the same number of farms but in 7 fewer 
towns. Only one death has been reported. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, 
as to disposal of infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, 
are applicable following occurrence of this disease. 

Actinomycosis. — Seventeen cases of this disease have been 
reported this year, located as follows: 1 each in the towns of 
Beverly, Charlton, Concord, Grafton, Leominster, Plymouth, 
Sharon and Spencer, and 3 in the town of Hancock, all of 
which proved to be positive cases. 

Of the 17 cases reported, 8 have been slaughtered, 3 have 
been released as having recovered on treatment, 5 proved on 
investigation to be other diseases, and 1 is still in quarantine 
undergoing treatment. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — The prevalence of this 
disease in Massachusetts, while very much lower than in many 



30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

other States which receive large numbers of cattle through 
public stockyards, is nevertheless to be carefully noted. Our 
outbreaks generally occur among pasture cattle, take on a 
very acute form, and frequently cause sudden deaths, with no 
opportunity for treatment. Prevention and cure are often 
successful, however, if the animals can be treated early and 
before reaching the final stages. It is our custom to advise 
the immediate removal of all animals from the pasture where 
the disease first appears, and if this is attended to, and the 
animals are not already showing symptoms of the disease, it 
generally happens that no additional cases follow. 

Preventive treatment is, however, advised for all remaining 
animals in the herd and curative treatment for those appar- 
ently infected. Prompt report generally results in early sup- 
pression of outbreaks, and as a laboratory examination is some- 
times necessary for positive diagnosis, we request the early 
shipment of specimens in suspected cases or where the field 
symptoms resemble those of anthrax, with which disease 
hemorrhagic septicemia is sometimes confused. 

Our records this year show 28 deaths in cattle caused by 
hemorrhagic septicemia, in the following towns: Ashfield, 2; 
Fitchburg, 1; Framingham, 2; Northfield, 4; Phillipston, 4; 
Scituate, 6; Shelburne, 2; Templeton, 2; Tewskbury, 5. 
Preventive treatment was administered to 66 cattle. 

An outbreak of disease in a flock of sheep in the town of 
Montague, which had caused 25 deaths, was diagnosed as 
hemorrhagic septicemia, and the remainder of the flock was 
immediately given preventive treatment by one of our district 
agents. Three additional deaths occurred following treatment. 

Parasitic Diseases. — The external and internal infestation 
of farm animals by parasites to any extensive degree has a 
marked effect in reducing the profits to be gained in the raising 
of live stock. They cause irritation in all degrees of intensity 
even to the point of acute suffering and death in some instances. 
In all cases they inhibit growth, and therefore, when infesting 
cattle, sheep or swine, cause a great waste of animal products 
used for human food. In young animals especially the greatest 
damage is to be noted, often rendering their continued feeding 
inadvisable from an economic standpoint. 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 

The importance of this condition and its real significance 
as a factor working against successful live-stock raising is 
being more generally recognized than ever before, and with 
such recognition comes the more special attention to its relief. 
Scientific investigations both in laboratory and field are re- 
vealing many facts regarding parasitic life which have never 
before been known, and the continuation of the research work 
in this direction promises valuable aid in the solution of many 
problems now confronting those engaged in the raising and 
development of animals to the point where their products are 
marketable. 

Mange in its different forms is the parasitic condition most 
often reported to this office. Large numbers of cattle and a 
few horses become affected each season, the number varying 
widely from year to year. Fewer cases have been reported this 
year than usual, but we are well aware that our reports are 
not a very correct indication of the extent of infestation, for 
the reason that many cattle owners do not consider their cases 
of sufficient importance to demand official attention. 

The successful treatment of mange in horses and cattle de- 
pends solely upon faithful application of proper medicinal 
remedies. These remedies are not expensive but their appli- 
cation is very inconvenient, the result often being that the 
disease prevails to a much greater extent than it should. Many 
owners of live stock, however, now realize that keeping their 
animals free from the irritation caused by the mange parasite 
means additional production and less food necessary to keep 
them in healthy condition. 

It is our custom to quarantine all reported cases whose 
owners are not disposed to apply proper treatment. One 
hundred and twelve cases of mange have been reported this 
year on 5 premises in 4 different towns. 

Nodular disease, a parasitic infection of the intestinal tract, 
was reported as prevailing extensively in a flock of 1,250 sheep 
in the town of Gosnold. No measures for relief of a condition 
of this kind being practical under the circumstances, the owner 
was advised as to slaughter. One case of parasites infesting 
the lungs of sheep was reported from the town of Bridgewater. 

Foot-and-movth Disease. — Although no outbreak of this 



32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

disease has occurred during the year, we have been very appre- 
hensive regarding the possibilities of its reappearance. It has 
prevailed to an alarming extent in many countries with which 
the United States has intimate trade relations, and the channels 
of commerce provide a ready way for its conveyance. All 
kinds of merchandise furnish a suitable vehicle for its trans- 
mission; and considering its prevalence not only in the British 
Isles and continental Europe but also nearer by in Mexico and 
South American countries, it is really remarkable that an out- 
break in this country has not occurred. Live-stock officials of 
the Nation and the several States are very much alive to the 
impending danger and are prepared to take immediate steps 
to surround and control the disease at the first notice of its 
appearance. By the exercise of all the precautionary measures 
now taken or ready to be put in operation, it is hoped that 
any wide extension of the disease will be prevented in case it 
appears. 

Considerable experimental work is now being done looking 
to the development of a biological product to be used in the 
immunization of susceptible animals, but such work has not 
progressed to a point where it can be shown to be of practical 
value. The successful stamping-out method used in former 
outbreaks in this country will undoubtedly be relied upon in 
the emergency of its outbreak. 

In this State all live-stock officials, Division veterinarians, 
local inspectors of animals, and private veterinarians have 
•been notified of the impending danger of an outbreak and asked 
to immediately call this office if any suspicious cases are found. 
Bovine Infectious Abortion. — The prevalence of this infec- 
tion is very widespread and is second in importance only to 
bovine tuberculosis. The losses caused by it and its many 
concurrent conditions are so extensive as to command the 
serious attention of all dairymen and breeders of thoroughbred 
cattle. 

We still await further knowledge of a definite nature re- 
garding its cause, dissemination and practical control. While 
scientific investigators are not entirely agreed upon many 
important phases of the problem, especially the possibility and 
practicability of immunization of susceptible animals by arti- 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 

ficial means, yet all concur in recognition of the value and 
absolute necessity of the well-known hygienic measures which 
have long been recommended in preventing the spreading of 
the infection in ah individual herd. 

Control measures to be instituted by official authority, with 
the idea of preventing the carrying of infection from one herd 
to another by restricting the sale or transfer of affected animals, 
may eventually be found to be advisable and necessary, but in 
the light of our present knowledge such official action is not 
deemed practicable. The intimate handling of a herd problem 
of this kind is naturally one to be worked out with the assist- 
ance of a private veterinarian, who should be relied upon for 
advice as to general herd management and the proper way to 
carry out the various sanitary measures recognized as essential 
to progress in the control of any infection. 

Other Infectious Diseases. — Inspectors of slaughtering occa- 
sionally bring to our attention the finding of tuberculosis in 
swine at time of their slaughter, and in all such instances if we 
get the information as to what premises the animals came from, 
we immediately have all the cattle examined which may be 
thereon. The source of this disease in swine is often found in 
the cattle with which they are kept, and a slaughterer's report 
may therefore be the means of leading us to a tuberculous cow. 
Nineteen cases of swine tuberculosis have been reported this 
year from seven different towns. 

Tuberculosis in horses, a very rare occurrence but an occa- 
sional case of which has been reported in recent years, has not 
been found to exist during 1922. 

The Division has frequently been called upon to examine 
animals suspected of contagious disease which on investigation 
proved to be affected with disease of a non-contagious char- 
acter. 

Among such instances the following may be mentioned: A 
flock of sheep in the town of Monterey dying apparently from 
old age; a herd of 3 cows in Montague dying from starvation; 
2 cows in Blandford suffering from a chemical poison; 1 cow 
in Heath infected by pus absorption; 1 cow in Princeton with 
a piece of wire puncturing the heart; a large number of 



34 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

horses owned by a business concern in Boston, which had 
been maliciously injured by punctured wounds which became 
infected. 

Laboratory Service. 

The bacteriological laboratory of the Department of Public 
Health has rendered this Division the same valuable service as 
during previous years. 

In our contagious disease control work there are many in- 
stances in which correct diagnosis can only be made as the 
result of laboratory examination, and there are many addi- 
tional instances where diagnoses made from clinical symptoms 
or from macroscopical appearances post-mortem are not en- 
tirely satisfactory unless confirmed by the laboratory findings 
of a trained bacteriologist. The service of the laboratory as 
an auxiliary to Division investigations is therefore invaluable. 
From the standpoint of economy, rendering unnecessary the 
maintenance of a laboratory by this Division, it is a fine exam- 
ple of the value of co-operation between State departments. 

The most important service of the laboratory this year has 
been the examination of the brains of 483 animals submitted 
because suspected of rabies. Prompt and definite conclusions 
as to the existence or non-existence of this infection are neces- 
sary, and especially so if persons have been bitten by the sus- 
pected animals. 

Complement-fixation tests of 279 samples of blood taken 
from horses suspected of or exposed to glanders have been 
made. 

In addition to these principal services, 46 specimens have 
been examined taken from animals suspected of the following 
diseases: anthrax, 9; blackleg, 2; glanders, 2; hemorrhagic 
septicemia, 15; tuberculosis, 11; actinomycosis, epithelioma, 
Johne's disease, necrobacillosis, nodular disease, pneumonia and 
ulcerative gastritis, 1 each. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

Under the provisions of section 19, chapter 129 of the 
General Laws, an order was issued by the Director on Jan. 10, 
1922, to every inspector of animals in the cities and towns of 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 35 

the Commonwealth calling for an inspection of all cattle, sheep 
and swine and of the premises where kept. 

This order called for the completion of the inspection by 
March 1, and for a report of the same to be promptly forwarded 
to the Division's office. The inspectors' reports came forward 
in most instances in good season and were duly examined and 
tabulated in minute detail. 

Grossly these reports show an increase from last year of 
6,205 cattle of all classes. The number of dairy cows — 
168,870 — shows an increase of 8,678 from last year, and the 
increase for the past two years is 14,463. This brings the 
total number of dairy cows in Massachusetts to a higher 
figure than for several years. 

There were 32,650 stables inspected, showing that animals 
were kept on 859 more premises than in 1921. 

The number of swine — 68,579 — shows a decrease of 7,948, 
and the number of sheep — 13,542 — a decrease of 1,961. 

Inspecting the records for the past fifty years we find the 
average yearly count of dairy cows to be approximately 160,000. 
Whereas several times during that period the number has 
dropped to 140,000, it is to be especially noted that at present 
we have a number well above the average for a long period of 
years, and, contrary to the frequently expressed opinion of 
many men supposedly well informed as to the live-stock in- 
dustry of the State, dairy animals are not gradually disap- 
pearing from Massachusetts farms, but are constantly increasing 
in numbers. 

The decreases in sheep and swine are undoubtedly due to 
the high prices of fodder and the relatively low prices of 
marketed carcasses sold for food purposes. 

A word should be said as to the character of the work done 
by local inspectors of animals and the value of their reports. 
From these reports a fairly correct and comprehensive survey 
may be drawn of the general health conditions of the live stock 
on Massachusetts farms, and of the conditions under which 
they are kept. Such a survey is of great aid in formulating 
our general policies both in disease control and in the campaign 
for gradual betterment of stabling conditions. 

The only correct "census" of farm animals in the State is 



36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

made up from these reports, and it is not only of interest and 
value to the Department of Conservation but to other State 
departments, and to individuals and associations interested in 
the breeding and raising of live stock, or engaged in any of 
the many lines of business closely related thereto. 

The emergency service of inspectors in connection with sud- 
den outbreaks of contagious disease is invaluable, and the 
organization as a whole forms a very important branch of the 
Division's force. 

Meetings of inspectors were held this year at Greenfield, 
Pittsfield, Springfield, Worcester and Boston. These meetings 
were well attended and various subjects of interest were dis- 
cussed. 

District veterinarians have made 1,511 visits to premises 
where unsanitary conditions existed and which local inspectors 
had failed in having corrected. In the majority of instances 
the final result has been a satisfactory improvement. 

Reports of Rendering Companies. 

Section 154 of chapter 111 of the General Laws requires 
rendering companies to report to this Division every animal 
received by them which is found to be infected with a conta- 
gious disease, and the information thus furnished is of value in 
bringing to the attention of the Division occasional cases of 
these diseases which otherwise would not be known. 

Thirty reports covering 76 cases of contagious diseases were 
received from rendering companies, 2 of which had not been 
otherwise recorded. 

Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 129. Acts of 1922 $3,500 00 
Expended during the year for the salary of the Director . . . $3,500 00 

Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, chap- 
ter 129, Acts of 1922 $8,100 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers . . . $7,876 50 
Extra clerical and stenographic service . . . . 77 79 



Total expenditure ........ $7,954 29 

Unexpended balance . . . . • . . . . 145 71 



5,100 00; 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 

Appropriation for services other than personal, including 

printing the annual report, traveling expenses of 

the Director, and office supplies and equipment, 

chapter 129, Acts of 1922 

Additional appropriation granted by Legislature to cover 

1921 deficiency 



Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books and maps . . . 

Express and messenger service . 

Postage . . . 

Printing report 

Other printing 

Telephone and telegrams 

Stationery and office supplies 

Expenses of the Director ....... 

Total expenditure 

Unexpended balance 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 
agents engaged in the work of extermination of con- 
tagious diseases among domestic animals, chapter 
129, Acts of 1922 $47,000 00 

Brought forward from 1921 appropriation . . . 30 00 



$5,200 


00 


6 


70 


$75 00 


242 


84 


911 


84 


168 


66 


1,599 


77 


651 


97 


880 


75 


519 


71 


$5,050 


54 


156 


16 



>,206 70 



1,206 70 



Total amount appropriated $47,030 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Services of regular agents $33,685 87 

Services of per diem agents 7,398 00 

Labor hired 100 00 



Total expenditure $41,183 87 

Unexpended balance 5,846 13 

Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterinarians 

and agents, chapter 129, Acts of 1922 . . . $23,000 00 

Brought forward from 1921 appropriation . . . 15 40 



$47,030 00 



Total amount appropriated $23,015 40 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 

Traveling expenses of regular agents $16,382 28 

Traveling expenses of per diem agents .... 3,444 95 



Total expenditure $19,827 23 

Unexpended balance 3,188 17 



,015 40 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle and 
horses killed during the present and previous years, 
travel, when allowed, of inspectors of animals, inci- 
dental expenses of killing and burial, quarantine and 
emergency services, and for laboratory and veteri- 
nary supplies and equipment, chapter 129, Acts of 
1922 $71,000 00 



38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 
1,657 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 

tuberculosis in 1920, 1921, 1922, paid for in 1922 . $58,214 00 

14 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders . 800 00 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors 213 74 

Laundry . • . . -. 391 62 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants .... 573 95 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc. .... 663 08 

Ear-tags, punches, chains, etc 2,477 42 

Expenses of killing and burial 331 30 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals ... 623 55 

Quarantine expenses . 51 50 

Rent of quarantine office ......... 65 00 

Rent of halls and services for inspectors' meetings . . 133 50 

Sundries 48 00 

Total expenditures $64,586 66 l 

Unexpended balance 6,413 34 

$71,000 00 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of certain 
cattle killed in accordance with agreements made 
under authority of chapters 353 and 546, Acts of 

1922 $15,000 00 

Transferred from the Extraordinary Fund . . . 10,000 00 



Total amount appropriated $25,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following: — 
400 head of cattle killed (chapter 353, Acts of 1922) . $12,889 32 
Unexpended balance . . 12,110 68 

$25,000 00 

The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle 
for the entire year is $32.41. For the first five months of 
the year, before the maximum indemnity as fixed by law was 
reduced from $60 to $25, the average indemnity paid on each 
animal was $39.92. For the remaining seven months, during 
which the lowered maximum rate was in force, the average 
indemnity paid for each animal was $24.26. 

One hundred and fifty-five claims for reimbursement for 
cattle condemned and killed as tuberculous during the year 
remain unsettled, these claims amounting to $4,263. 

Thirty unpaid claims covering 267 cattle, to which the pro- 
visions of chapter 353, Acts of 1922, apply, remain unpaid, 
amounting to $7,964.34. 

1 This amount reduced by $120 refunded on account of expense of previous years. 



1923.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 39 

A claim amounting to $50, applying to 1 horse condemned 
and killed during the year because affected with glanders, re- 
mains unsettled. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $8.51. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Director. 



Appendix 



GRAPHS SHOWING THE WORK OF THE 
DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



IN SOME OF THE 



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Public Document No. 98 



Cfie CommontoealtJ) of QUaggacimsettg 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1923 



Department of Conservation 




Publication ok this Document APPROVED BY tiik Commihhion on Adminihthatjon and Finance 




2 <f, '/*'&/, 



Cl)e Commontoealtl) of $&a$mtbmzm 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Nov. 30, 1923. 
To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

I have the honor to present the following report of the work of this Division 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1923. 

The present year has been one of increased activities in the Division, partly 
owing to the rapidly developing interest of cattle owners in the eradication of 
bovine tuberculosis by use of the tuberculin test under the provisions of Chapter 
353 of the Acts of 1922, which allows the payment of indemnity for reacting 
cattle. 

The continued prevalence of rabies, with its attending dangers to human life, 
has also greatly added to the work of the Division by the necessary increase in 
regulatory measures of quarantine, and also by the increased laboratory exami- 
nations called for. 

Contagious diseases of swine have claimed a larger part of our field activities 
than usual, as this branch of the service is one constantly calling for extended 
effort in prevention of hog cholera, hemorrhagic septicemia and various mixed 
infections attacking that species. 

The regular continuous duties of inspection of horses, cattle^ sheep and swine 
and of the sanitary conditions under which they are kept, execution of measures 
in prevention, cure or control of contagious diseases among all the several 
species of domestic animals, and the condemnation and slaughter when neces- 
sary of such as are affected with certain forms of such diseases, followed by 
supervision of the burial or other disposal of their carcasses, have been attended 
to promptly and in accordance with the methods found by many years' ex- 
perience to be most effective. 

The enforcement of regulations applying to the transportation of animals 
from other states to Massachusetts is another important duty of this Division, 
as by these methods we make sure that no prevalence of contagious disease shall 
be caused by the entry of infected animals. Mallein testing of horses from 
certain states in which glanders has extensively prevailed, and tuberculin testing 
of dairy or breeding cattle shipped from other states and not accompanied by 
satisfactory records of tuberculin test, are continuous activities calling for 
prompt determination of actual health conditions at time of entry. Although 
Federal regulations now require that all cattle of whatever age shipped from 
one state to another for any purpose except immediate slaughter shall have 
passed a tuberculin test applied by an approved veterinarian before the ship- 
ment takes place, and we ordinarily depend on this regulation being complied 
with by cattle shippers, yet we find that many cases of violation occur either in- 
tentionally or through ignorance of the existence of any regulatory measures of 
the United States government applying to this class of interstate commerce. 
In such instances official action becomes immediately necessary in protection of 
the live-stock interests of the state, and all animals involved are immediately in- 
spected and tuberculin tested. Failure to pass inspection and test requires con- 
demnation and killing, without indemnity to owner unless post-morten examina- 
tion discloses no evidence of disease. 

The Division attempts first of all to prevent the outbreak of contagious dis- 
ease, and as far as possible thereby to maintain our animals in a state of health. 
If such can be accomplished it operates to conserve in great measure that por- 
tion of the public food supply produced by our domestic animals and said to 
be more than one-third of its total. It also establishes its quality and nutritive 
value at a high standard. 

The dairying industry depends for its business success on the production of 
large amounts of milk of standard quality, and for this production healthy ani- 
mals are a first necessity. Neither propagation in sufficient numbers nor satis- 



p:d. 98. 3 

factory development to maturity or to the point where their products are avail-r 
able for human food can be expected in animals affected with any form of con- 
tagious disease. 

The relation of animal disease to the public health has been previously men- 
tioned but should be referred to in further detail. A diseased animal is some- 
times found to be the source of the contagion of glanders, tuberculosis, rabies, 
anthrax, and other diseases appearing in the human subject. Such cases are 
fortunately of rare occurrence but their high mortality rate when attacking man 
calls attention to the vital importance of controlling these maladies at their most 
common source, and if possible eradicating them entirely from the animal 
kingdom. 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Division for the year ending 
Nov. 30,1923: — 

Cattle. , 

13,768 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by inspectors. 

101 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians at 

Brighton stockyards. 
22,368 tuberculin tests of Massachusetts cattle were made by Federal and State 

veterinarians in co-operation. 
2,712 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 
8,700 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test records 

viseed. 
6,025 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other points. 
942 animals on 124 farms in 43 towns were given preventive treatment against 

blackleg. 
21 animals were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 
93 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic septicemia. 
772 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses, 

302 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 

3,391 interstate horses were examined by inspectors. ; 

9 tests of whole stables were made by Division veterinarians. ; 

5 horses were given preventive treatment against anthrax. .< 

Dogs. 

1,898 cases of possible rabies in dogs were investigated. 

Swine. 

66,627 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 
26,540 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic septi- 
cemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

256 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis. 

Our work in the control and eradication of this disease during the year has 
been carried on much as in former years but with the added efficiency made pos- 
sible by the operation of the so-called tuberculin-testing law passed by the legis- 
lature of 1922 and effective on Aug. 1 of that year. The indications of real 
progress in the campaign against tuberculosis of the bovine animal are now 
very much more apparent than at any previous time in the history of this 
branch of State service. 

For many years this eradication work had been practically limited to the dis- 
posal of physical cases of the disease, — animals so far advanced in the stages 
of tuberculosis as to be readily recognized by a physical examination alone, 
earlier diagnosis by the use of tuberculin being prohibited by law except in 
special instances of rare occurrence. By the time tuberculous animals have 
reached the stage of disease development where they become clinical cases they 



4 P.D. 98. 

have been active spreaders of the infection for a long" time, and eradication work 
which is limited to the killing of such eases cannot be expected to be successful 
in any marked degree; during the development stage infection is being con- 
tinuously planted in new centers and is developing faster than it can possibly 
be reduced by the killing of advanced cases only. For real progress in eradica- 
tion earlier diagnosis is necessary, and the diseased animals must be slaughtered 
or isolated before reaching the point where they become sources of contagion to 
others. 

For the purpose of early diagnosis the tuberculin test has been available for 
some years, during which it has been rapidly advanced to a satisfactory stage 
of perfection, and adapted to several different methods of application. It now 
comes to our aid through the agency of the new law referred to, arid we believe 
that within a few years we will be able to show a very marked diminution in 
the prevalence of this great plague which has so devastated our herds and has 
caused such a great economic loss to cattle raisers, to milk producers, and to the 
many business interests allied to the live-stock industry. 

In Massachusetts, as in all other States of the Union, the Federal govern- 
ment is co-operating in this work under the provisions of its " accredited tuber- 
culosis-free herd plan " instituted in 1917 by its Bureau of Animal Industry. 
In the six years during which this plan has been in operation in different parts 
of the country in connection with local State activities, the combined service has 
progressed to a point where it is recognized as a public work of undoubted value. 
Its increasing popularity from year to year, as attested by the large number of 
herds voluntarily submitted for test under its regulations, and the published 
statistics of its practical workings both in individual herds and in defined areas 
such as towns or whole counties where all the cattle have been tested, would seem 
to indicate that this plan was well conceived, has been efficiently administered, 
and has accomplished wonderful results in the eradication of the disease. 

While the work in Massachusetts has hardly been in operation long enough 
to show by actual figures its effect in the reduction of the prevalence of bovine 
tuberculosis, we have no reason to doubt that the satisfactory experience of 
other States where the work was started much earlier will be repeated here. 

The official tuberculin test is applied only on request of the cattle owner, and 
only if he agrees to comply with the rules and regulations devised for proper 
administration of the law. The principal provisions of these rules and regu- 
lations refer to the disposal of animals which react to the test, the cleansing, dis- 
infection and necessary repairs of the premises where they are found, and the 
determination of the health conditions of the cattle to be afterwards added to 
these herds under official supervision. 

We find the requests for this service showing a steady increase in number 
from month to month as cattle owners become more thoroughly informed of the 
opportunity which it offers for elimination of diseased animals from their 
herds under conditions allowing fairly liberal reimbursement for them. We also 
find other potent factors influencing their decisions. 

In many communities different civic or welfare organizations are now discuss- 
ing the desirability of regulating by municipal authority the purity of their 
milk supply in this particular direction by prohibiting the sale of raw milk 
unless produced by animals which have passed a tuberculin test. Many milk 
producers foresee the probable establishment in the near future of regulations of 
this kind and decide it to be good business policy to be getting their herds into 
a condition where they can at once comply with the new requirements when in- 
stituted. At the end of the year, Nov. 30, 1923, we have 104 herds comprising 
3,538 cattle which have been accredited by the Federal government as tuber- 
culosis-free. 

Animals in accredited tuberculosis-free herds command an increased price 
when offered for sale, and their market value is bound to still further advance 
as testing becomes more general and the demand for clean cattle becomes greater. 
Dairy products from herds which can be officially certified to as healthy are 
already in greater demand at advanced rates than the present supply can fulfill. 



P.D. 98. 5 

There are, therefore, many reasons for the rapidly increasing number of re- 
quests for our service under the new law, and we foresee that the end of the 
coming year will show very many herds added to our list as tuberculosis-free. 
New requests for this service are constantly being presented, and on Nov. 30 
there were 81 on file, which will be complied with early in the new fiscal year. 

Following is the year's record of tuberculin tests under the provisions of 
chapter 353, Acts of 1922: — 

Total number of herds tested: 874. 

Total number of cattle tested: 22,368 (purebreds 9,878, grades 12,490); 
passed the test, 19,162; reacted, 3,206; percentage of reactions: 14.3. 

First test, 426 herds, 8,128 cattle; passed, 5,585; reacted, 2,543; percentage 
of reactions : 31. 

Second test, 229 herds, 4,668 cattle; passed, 4,337; reacted, 331; percentage 
of reactions : 7. 

Third test, 155 herds, 7,186 cattle; passed, 6,866; reacted, 320; percentage 
of reactions : 4.5. 

Tests made of 64 herds comprising 2,386 cattle, previously accredited and 
due for retest, showed only 12 reactors, i.e., one-half of 1 per cent. 

In commenting on the above record attention is directed to the fact that al- 
though the percentage of reactors found — all records of tests being included — 
is 14.3, that figure does not correctly indicate the prevalence of the disease in 
Massachusetts, as the records on which it is computed comprise not only original 
first tests of herds but also the retests subsequently made in many of the same 
herds after the animals reacting to previous tests had been removed. A better 
basis, therefore, on which to estimate the percentage of tuberculous cattle in 
the State which the tuberculin test might disclose would be the results obtained 
on first tests only. The percentage so computed is 31, and undoubtedly more 
correctly indicates the true condition of our herds as regards tuberculosis, and 
at the same time emphasizes the magnitude of the work to be done in the fu- 
ture if ultimate eradication or more effective control of this disease is to be 
obtained under this plan. 

A comparison between the number of reactors found in grade animals and 
those found in purebreds shows 18 per cent of the former and only 9 per cent 
of the latter. This may be accounted for largely by the fact that many purebred 
herds, on account of their high values, have been kept free from the disease 
by constant testing by private veterinarians over a period of years, while herds 
of grade animals of less money value have not been given similar attention. 

As clearly showing what a continuous use of the tuberculin test may be ex- 
pected to accomplish, a comparison of percentages of reactors found on first, 
second and third tests, showing a decrease from 31 per cent on first tests to 7 
per cent on second tests and thence to 4.5 per cent on third tests, is at once 
convincing. There seems to be no doubt that continued work of this kind, effi- 
ciently and faithfully carried out, with due regard for all the necessary precau- 
tions against re-infection, will result in rapid progress toward elimination of 
the disease. 

An " accredited " herd is one which has passed three semi-annual or two an- 
nual tests without a reacting animal having been found, and our record of the 
retests of such herds, showing that only one-half of 1 per cent reacted, indicates 
that continuous tuberculin testing with " accreditation " in view is well worth 
while from the standpoints both of the cattle owner and of the officials in charge 
of the control of this disease. 

On Oct. 15, 1923, a regulation went into effect at the Brighton stockyards re- 
quiring that all cattle sold at those premises, unless for immediate slaughter, 
must have passed a tuberculin test. Formerly cattle arriving at those premises 
from Massachusetts farms were not tested and were sold without restriction. 

The Brighton stockyards are an important distributing center for dairy cattle, 
and it would seem a very necessary control measure that the animals there sold 
to go to the farms in different parts of the State should be tuberculosis-free. 
We confidently expect that the effect of this new regulation will be noticeable 



6 P.D. 98. 

in the near future, and, what is quite important to the cattle trade itself, that a 
long existing criticism of the cattle business as carried on at this point will cease. 

From Oct. 15 to Nov. 30, 1923, the period during which cattle from Massachu- 
setts farms have been tested at this market, 459 animals have been received, 101 
of which were tested on arrival, and 358, which were accompanied by satisfac- 
tory certificates of recent test made by approved veterinarians, were released for 
sale without restriction. 

Of the 101 animals held for examination, 6 were released for slaughter and 
not tested, 1 was returned to owner because not in condition to test, 67 were 
tested and passed, and 27 reacted and were either slaughtered or returned to 
owners' premises, each animal so returned bearing a reactor tag for identifica- 
tion. These returned reactors were only 7 in number, the remaining ones being 
slaughtered. The percentage of diseased animals disclosed by the test at these 
premises (27) proves the value of this regulation, and points to its probable 
efficacy as a means of limiting in a measure the spread of bovine tuberculosis 
from farm to farm within the State. 

Recommendations for New Legislation. 

1. A condition which now threatens to offset in a large measure the progress 
being made in the eradication of bovine tuberculosis under the provisions of 
chapter 353 of the Acts of 1922, approved May 2, 1922, and known as the 
tuberculin-testing law, is the operation of section 4 of that Act, which provided 
that on and after August 1, 1923, section 12 of chapter 129, as amended by 
section 2 of chapter 353, should be repealed. 

Said section 12 of chapter 129, General Laws, is the statute under which, until 
its repeal (Aug. 1, 1923), the Commonwealth paid for cattle condemned and killed 
because affected with tuberculosis, and the operation of which resulted in the 
slaughter of many badly diseased animals so far advanced in the stages of 
tuberculosis as to be readily recognized by their owners and by local inspectors. 
They then became subjects for immediate quarantine, which was followed by 
their condemnation and killing under orders of the Director of Animal Industry. 

An owner of such an animal would always report its condition to his local town 
inspector or direct to the Division of Animal Industry, knowing that official con- 
demnation and killing meant the payment of a certain amount of money as a 
partial reimbursement for his loss. As soon, however, as State indemnity was 
withdrawn by the repeal of this section of law, the attitude of the owners of 
this class of animals immediately changed. They now, in many instances, fail 
to report them, as nothing is to be received from the State as reimbursement, 
and the disagreeable publicity of quarantine is avoided. 

What now happens in such instances is that a badly diseased tuberculous cow 
is kept milking as long as possible, and in the meantime she is rapidly spreading 
the disease to other cattle, not to mention the possibility of its spread to the 
human subject. The final disposal of such an animal is death from the disease, 
slaughter by the owner, or sale at whatever price she will bring in the market. 
In the latter case there is the extension of a center of infection to another loca- 
tion, other cattle are exposed, and possibly other human lives jeopardized. 

Before the law referred to was repealed, these animals, as stated, were re- 
ported, then quarantined, killed and paid for; further, members of the same 
herd were examined for additional cases, and the premises were cleaned and dis- 
infected. These measures undoubtedly limited to a large degree the spread and 
prevalence of the disease, were measures of sound economy, and immeasurably 
effective in protection of the public health. 

Upon repeal of the law providing for reimbursement for this class of cases, 
we found their number reported to official authority immediately dropping 75 
per cent. This means that a large per cent of the badly diseased tuberculous 
cows in the State are continuing to live and spread the infection. In my opinion 
it would be far better for the Commonwealth to pay something for these 
creatures, and have them condemned and killed. This would be of itself a 
measure of true economy and would certainly be greatly in aid of the present 
movement to eradicate tuberculosis by use of the tuberculin test. 



P.D. 98. 7 

The Commonwealth is now spending large amounts of money to eradicate the 
disease by scientific methods, and to allow active spreaders of the disease to ex^ 
ist because of no practicable law by which to exterminate them would seem to 
be a paradoxical condition which should be remedied. 

I therefore recommend the enactment of legislation whereby the present 
condition, brought about by the repeal of section 12, chapter 129, General Laws, 
may be eliminated. 

2. A condition operating directly against the eradication of bovine tuber- 
culosis by use of the tuberculin test, in accordance with the provisions of chap- 
ter 353, Acts of 1922, is the indiscriminate sale of animals which have reacted 
to such test. 

Chapter 137 of the Acts of 1922 places certain restrictions on the sale of this 
class of animals, but does not absolutely prohibit it. Consequently there is 
more or less traffic in them, resulting in spread of the disease from one farm to 
another. 

In my opinion the ow r ner of an animal which has reacted to a tuberculin test 
should not be allowed to sell the same except for purposes of immediate slaugh- 
ter. If he desires to retain such an animal in his own herd he alone should 
assume the responsibility, be the consequences what they may, but the public 
should be protected against the consequences of this traffic in diseased animals. 

It is my opinion that the expenditure of money by the Commonwealth to 
eradicate bovine tuberculosis is rendered more or less futile if the disease is 
allowed to be carried from one farm to another by the sale of animals known to 
be affected therewith. 

I therefore recommend that said chapter 137, Acts of 1922, recorded as sec J 
tion 33 A of chapter 129 of the General Laws, be so amended as to prohibit 
the sale of reacting cattle except for immediate slaughter. 

Interstate Cattle. 

Federal regulations applying to the shipment of dairy or breeding cattle from 
one State to another now require that all animals of that class of whatever age 
shall have passed a recent tuberculin test before the shipment takes place, ari 
exception to this regulation being that animals from " accredited tuberculosis- 
free " herds may be shipped interstate without test. 

These Federal regulations relieve us to a large extent of the former necessity 
of applying the tuberculin test to the majority of cattle arriving within the State, 
and consequently this branch of our work has been very much diminished since 
this Federal regulation became operative. 

Another modification of the Federal regulations is that untested cattle may be 
shipped interstate if consigned to "public stockyards," under which designation' 
the Brighton stockyards are now classified. Dairy or breeding cattle must b6 
tested on arrival at Brighton unless accompanied by satisfactory certificates 
showing they have passed a recent test applied by a veterinarian whose work is 
approved by the live-stock official of the State where the shipment originates;. 
Check tests are made from time to time on these certified animals to make sure 
that the efficiency of the testing is up to the proper standard and that dishonesty* 
or misrepresentation has not been practiced. 

Receiving stations for cattle consigned to the Brighton market are maintained 
at Watertown and Somerville and are under the same quarantine restrictions 
as the main yards at Brighton. 

During the year 11,140 interstate dairy cattle have been received at Brighton, 
either snipped thereto direct or through the other receiving stations mentioned. 
Of these, 4,234 were from New Hampshire, 4,110 from Maine, 2,680 from Ver- 
mont, 108 from New York, and 8 from Connecticut. Of the total number re J 
ceived, 8,700 were released for sale on approved records of tuberculin test, and 
2,440 were held for test by State and Federal officials, the reactors being 
slaughtered. 

At other points in the State there have been received 6,302 dairy or breeding 
cattle from other States, all tuberculin tested either before shipment or immedi- 



8 P.D. 98. 

ately after arrival in eases where interstate regulations have not been complied 
with through ignorance or wilful intent. 

The total number of dairy or breeding cattle received from other States at 
all points in Massachusetts shows a grand total of 17,442, approximately the 
same number as in 1922, an increase, however, of 175 animals. 

Contagious Diseases of Swine. 

Hog Cholera is the principal disease of swine that is contagious and the one 
which originally directed the attention of live-stock officials to the importance of 
applying measures of control to diseases affecting that species. Ten years ago 
when the campaign against this disease was first started in Massachusetts, it was 
prevailing so extensively that many whole herds were being wiped out of ex- 
istence, or the deaths were so many that swine production as an industry was 
rapidly being abandoned on account of the financial losses sustained. A large 
proportion of swine raisers, who had previously been successful in the produc- 
tion of pork for the market by the utilization of garbage for feeding the animals, 
were being forced to abandon this cheap material for other of much higher cost, 
or go out of the business. All the elements necessary to perfect nutrition and 
rapid growth of swine are to be found in ordinary household garbage, and the 
feeding of this material, which in many communities had been entirely wasted, 
originally promised to become not only a great community economy but also 
the foundation of a successful business. The venture, however, was proving 
disastrous on account of garbage frequently being the carrier of disease by 
scraps of tissue originally coming from swine slaughtered and sold after being 
affected with hog cholera, and not until the development of a treatment by 
which swine could be immunized against this infection could they be safely 
raised to marketable age in sufficiently large numbers to be profitable. 

When this Division undertook a campaign against the prevalence of hog 
cholera, immunization had already been successfully developed by the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry and has since been progressively improved 
to the point where it is now generally recognized as a safe, effective and inex- 
pensive treatment, sure to prevent the disease if properly administered before in- 
fection takes place. We have therefore always urged all swine owners to have 
their herds protected by applying early to this Division for this service, which 
is rendered free of charge, the owner having to pay only for the materials used. 

As in many other ways where people are unmindful or careless of their own 
best interests, swine owners often delay their requests for service until too late 
for complete protection against disaster, as we can only partially avert their 
losses if hog cholera has already broken out on their premises. However, even 
in such cases we are generally able to minimize losses to a degree well worth 
while, but always regret financial losses that were really preventable. 

The prevention of contagious disease in swine is a conservation work of 
really great economic value, and our service in this direction is second in im- 
portance only to our control and eradication of contagious diseases of cattle. 
While hog cholera is the most disastrous of swine diseases, others are now com- 
manding increased attention each succeeding year as their importance to the suc- 
cessful outcome of swine raising as a business industry is more generally recog- 
nized. Further on in this report, for instance, it will be shown that we have 
administered this year more than three times as many treatments in the cure or 
prevention of swine plague (hemorrhagic septicemia) as during last year. 

Starting hog cholera prevention work in 1914 under plans well considered and 
comprising restrictions against the indiscriminate use of biologies which were 
valuable if used carefully and with good judgment, but dangerous if used with- 
out discrimination, we have found no reason to change our policies or regulatory 
orders in this branch of the service. 

There have been 66,627 treatments in prevention and cure of hog cholera 
administered this year to swine in 625 herds, these herds varying in size from 
those consisting of one pig only to some exceeding four thousand in number. 
The herds were located in 171 cities and towns and necessitated 1,508 visits by- 
one or more field veterinarians. 



P.D. 98. 9 

In addition there were 77 visits made to places where no treatment was ap- 
plied, either because the swine were so badly infected as to preclude all chance 
of recovery, or because, as in some instances, the trouble was of a non-con- 
tagious nature not calling for State service. In other instances sanitary condi- 
tions necessary to successful treatment could not be established. 

Attention is directed to a graph in the appendix to this report showing the 
number of treatments in control of hog cholera over the period of years from 
the inception of this work to the present time. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Swine. — This disease, otherwise known as "swine 
plague," has prevailed to a greatly increased extent this year, our records 
showing that treatment has been applied by our field veterinarians to three times 
as many animals as during the year 1922. 

Symptomaticaliy it very much resembles hog cholera in many outbreaks, and 
a differential diagnosis in the field is often difficult even by well trained veterin- 
arians of extensive experience. Frequently these infections are found coexistent 
and it is impossible to determine which of them is the primary invader, and in 
such cases treatment must be directed against both diseases. 

Similar conditions have been reported from many other States during the 
present year, and a factor which may have influenced the number of reported 
instances is the rapid development of more acute observation on the part of 
those who have made careful study of field conditions and have based their 
diagnoses on such observation and study. 

Various biological preparations designed for the prevention or cure of 
hemorrhagic septicemia in swine are now available and are being used suc- 
cessfully. Private veterinarians are not restricted from the use of these ma- 
terials and in some sections of the State many swine are treated by them. How- 
ever, as a swine owner generally considers any outbreak of disease to be hog 
cholera and applies to this Division for service, it happens that the great ma- 
jority of cases of hemorrhagic septicemia are referred to us, designated as hog 
cholera; the animals involved therefore come under our supervision and proper 
service in the emergency is rendered. 

During the year 26,540 treatments have been administered for the prevention 
or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia in swine. This number represents three 
times the service of this kind rendered in 1922, and as we are still busily en- 
gaged in this work at the end of the year the prospect for 1924 is that we shall 
be called upon for a service still further increased. 

Rabies. 

Among specific infectious diseases rabies is one of the more important, es- 
pecially because of its high mortality, its constant prevalence in practically all 
civilized countries, and the difficulty in its extermination when once it has be- 
come firmly established. Although primarily a disease of animals and mostly 
prevalent among dogs, which species is the principal factor in its spread, nearly 
all mammals are susceptible to the infection and under certain circumstances of 
communicability may become its victims. Because of these facts the danger to 
people during any unusual prevalence of the disease among dogs must be rec- 
ognized, and the circumstances surrounding local outbreaks given careful 
attention. 

Until this year the general prevalence in Massachusetts has shown a gradual 
yearly increase since 1918, progressively spreading from one community to an- 
other, in some instances disappearing from one section only to be found crop- 
ping out in another, so that the total number of cases recorded in the State 
as a whole has still remained high. We have reason to hope, however, that it 
has now arrived at the peak of its prevalence, as the number of positive cases 
recorded this year is practically the same as in 1922, and we confidently expect 
a recession to be shown in the coming year. Many diseases of this character 
seem to follow a cycle of incidence, and the fact of no increase of positive cases 
of rabies occurring this year leads us to expect that the high point in its cycle 
has been reached and a recession is due in the near future. 



10 P.D. 98. 

Its control in any one community can generally be accomplished fairly 
promptly if we can get all agencies co-operating to this end. Among these 
agencies strict enforcement of the dog license laws is of great importance. Un- 
fortunately, however, these laws seem to be practically ignored in many towns 
and cities or are only spasmodically enforced. Many dogs, especially those of 
low grade and value, would be destroyed if any one was obliged to pay for a 
license to keep them, and, as animals of this class are very potent factors in 
the spread of rabies, the lax enforcement of the dog license laws is an unfor- 
tunate condition, especially in communities where an outbreak of rabies has oc- 
curred and control measures of every kind are necessary to its suppression. 

Selectmen, mayors and boards of aldermen have the authority to issue orders 
calling for the muzzling or restraining of the dogs in their municipalities when- 
ever the same seems to be necessary. In the excitement attending a fresh out- 
break of this disease, when public opinion is acutely alive to the dangers of the 
situation, such orders are deemed necessary and are at first generally well ob- 
served by the dog owners and well enforced by the police authorities. As soon, 
however, as the first excitement has subsided, we find that in many instances 
there is no observance of them by the public, no enforcement by the authorities, 
and conditions relax to the same level of non-attention as in case of the State 
laws regarding the licensing of dogs. Effective control of rabies in any com- 
munity is not to be gained in a short time, and how to offset the perplexing 
conditions of non-observance and non-enforcement of State laws and local regu- 
lations is yet a problem. 

There is some promise of relief of the rabies situation in the recent develop- 
ment of a practicable method of treatment for the prevention of this disease by 
immunization of susceptible animals. This method has now been brought to a 
point where in many cases animals may be protected against rabies by a single 
injection of a properly prepared canine rabies vaccine. A general use of this 
treatment on dogs licensed according to law, and the impounding or humane de- 
struction of all ownerless or unlicensed dogs, would undoubtedly immediately 
reduce the prevalence of rabies to a negligible point. There would arise many 
difficulties in the carrying out of such a plan by official authority, but the fact 
that it is possible to protect animals which for any reason are valued by their 
owners is being taken advantage of, and is of some relief to the general situa- 
tion. Dogs which have been exposed to rabies are ordinarily quarantined for a 
period of 90 days, but if owners have them immunized this Division, will now 
release them from quarantine at the end of 21 days following treatment if no 
symptoms of rabies have appeared. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1923, 2,017 animals were reported to the 
Division for diagnosis, observation or quarantine on account of the preva- 
lence of rabies, and 53 reported cases were brought forward from the year 1922. 
Of these 2,070 animals, 455 dogs, 3 cattle, 3 cats, 3 pigs and 1 horse proved to be 
positive cases of rabies. Diagnoses were arrived at either by clinical symptoms, 
or laboratory examination of brains and the inoculation of small animals. These 
records show just one more positive case than the previous year. 

The Division received reports during the year of 1,032 persons who had been 
bitten by dogs, 13 persons who were bitten by cats, and 1 by a horse. 

In all cases reported of persons bitten by dogs, the local inspector of animals 
of the town or city where the animal is owned or kept is ordered to make an 
examination of the animal, and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it 
quarantined for a period of 14 days for observation. This is a measure di- 
rectly in protection of the public health. If by any chance the biting dog is 
affected with rabies at the time the bite is inflicted, unmistakable clinical symp- 
toms of the disease will probably appear before the end of the quarantine period, 
and in such cases the bitten persons will have definite knowledge of that fact 
and will seek medical advice. If at the end of the 14-day period dogs which 
are quarantined on account of biting persons have not developed symptoms of 
rabies, they are released from quarantine. 

The majority of the animals which inflicted bites on 1,046 persons as above 



RD. 98. 11 

recorded were released at the end of the quarantine period showing no symp- 
toms of rabies. 

Of the 2,070 animals reported for observation, 93 dogs and 3 eats were, as 
far as could be ascertained, ownerless and the dogs unlicensed, and 44 of these 
ownerless dogs proved to be positive cases of rabies. 

Glanders. 

Attention is directed to a graph in the appendix of this report showing the 
history of glanders prevalence in this State for a period of twenty years. 

It will be seen that while at some periods the number of cases indicated a 
very serious situation, notably in year 1913 when 1,084 horses were destroyed 
because affected, the following five years' record of cases showed a rapid de- 
cline to a point where the situation could be said to be a satisfactory one, and 
from that period to the present time — 1919 to 1923, inclusive — the situation 
has remained practically the same. 

The use of modern methods of diagnosing the disease, including the mallein 
testing of all exposed animals, such as the stable and working mates of positive 
cases, may be given the greater part of credit for the present satisfactory as- 
pect of the situation. Another factor to be recognized also is the lowering 
number of horses in commercial use and their better working conditions, which 
operate to lessen their susceptibility to disease of any kind. The horse's work- 
day has been shortened and he has been largely relieved by the motor truck of 
the heartbreaking long hauls of heavy loads which formerly were his task. The 
effort of various organizations having his welfare as their principal object has 
done much to educate his caretaker to an understanding of his needs and to a 
realization of his greater usefulness if well fed, comfortably stabled and prop- 
erly cared or. All of these are influences of value in the control and eradica- 
tion of disease of any kind in any species of live stock. 

The horse is still a necessity in many lines of commercial trade, and on the 
average New England farm he is still the economic power. Pie and his near 
relative, the mule, are indispensable in military operations, and as a means of 
healthful recreation and pleasure the horse is in much greater demand than at 
any time for many years. Note his continuing importance as a drawing card 
at all animal expositions where the different types, draft, coach, saddle or speed, 
still receive genuine attention of interest. 

Another and one of the most important uses of the horse to-day and in which 
he is well-nigh indispensable is in the manufacture of various biological prep- 
arations now used for the prevention or cure of many diseases of the human sub- 
ject. Modem preventive medicine is rapidly increasing its use of these prep- 
arations, and this materially increases the demand for healthy horses for their 
manufacture. 

Horses must therefore still be produced in considerable numbers and main- 
tained free from contagious disease. 

There were 53 horses reported during the year as suspected of glanders, of 
which number 13 proved to be positive cases of the disease. Horses in any way 
associated with these positive cases and classified as " contacts " — 79 in num- 
ber — were mallein tested, 6 positive cases being found, making a total number 
of 19 positive cases for the year. 

Of these 19 cases, 4 were condemned on clinical examination, and diagnoses 
in the remaining 15 cases were arrived at either by use of the ophthalmic mal- 
lein test or by laboratory examination of blood samples submitted to the com- 
plement-fixation test. 

Of the reported cases 3 died or were killed by owners, and 110 of the totaj 
of reported and contact cases were released from observation as not diseased. 

The 19 positive cases were located in 10 different cities and towns. Boston, 
which was formerly the storm center of the disease, has had only one case a 
year for the past three years. One other city and one town have each had 4 
cases this year, one city and two towns have each had 2 cases, and two cities and 
two towns have each had one. 



12 . P.D. 98. 

The laboratory work in this branch of the service is quite necessary and very 
important, and this year has consisted of the complement-fixation test of 140 
samples of blood taken from 119 horses, for the purpose of diagnosis. 

Ophthalmic mallein tests to the number of 82 have been applied to 66 horses 
owned in the State permanently, and 80 tests to 80 horses recently arrived from 
other States, a total of 162 tests to 146 animals. The results of these tests were 
10 positive, 152 negative. 

Under present regulations (Department Order No. 36) horses shipped to 
Massachusetts from New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Connecticut 
must be accompanied by a permit of the Director of Animal Industry. From 
these States there has been reported the arrival of 3,471 horses. They have 
been mallein tested on arrival unless accompanied by an approved record of 
test, or shown to be horses of the better class which ordinarily do not become 
exposed to the disease. 

it is to be noted that no interstate horses have been found this year to be 
affected with glanders. Many of the animals from these States are of the better 
class referred to, used for carriage work, breeding, racing or exhibition pur- 
poses, and many of them are brought to the State for the summer season only. 
These of the better class do not require special attention on our part, but sec- 
ond-hand horses, trafficked in and sent from the markets of one State to those 
of another for public sale, have been specially watched on account of their being 
considered more liable to be subjects of contagious disease. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — We are singularly fortunate in our freedom from outbreaks of 
this disease the past year. While during recent years the incidence of anthrax 
has been steadily declining and has this year reached the lowest point in its 
history as recorded, we are not unmindful of the terrible damage it sometimes 
occasions in a very short time following an outbreak, and often before local con- 
trol measures can be set in motion. Its onset is so rapid and its mortality rate 
so high that many deaths of live stock are liable to occur even before centralized 
control authorities are notified of its outbreak. 

An animal found dead in pasture from no recognized cause is generally the 
first incident to which attention is called, if any notice whatever has been thought' 
necessary, and before the true nature of the trouble is determined and the danger 
is recognized, it sometimes happens that many other animals have been exposed 
to the disease and a certain number have become infected and later succumb. 
If such occurs and carcasses are not promptly buried, the infection may be 
carried in numberless ways to surrounding territory and a more or less general 
prevalence of the disease be started. 

The bacillus of anthrax and its spore formations are very resistant to the 
conditions which ordinarily destroy germ life, and will remain potent for a long 
time — often for many years — living in the soil and ready to infect any sus- 
ceptible animal which may come in close contact with them. It therefore hap- 
pens that places where it has existed at any time may remain infected and sub- 
sequent outbreaks may occur even after the lapse of years. Consequently, fol- 
lowing a positive diagnosis of anthrax it becomes necessary to at once put in 
operation preventive measures against its future occurrence. 

Deep burial or burning of infected carcasses and material with which they 
have been in contact, disinfection of buildings, the burning over of surface 
ground where carcasses are buried or over which they may have been dragged, 
the protective inoculation of all exposed animals and those which afterwards 
are to be stabled or pastured on the same premises, and a thorough investigation 
as to possible sources of the original outbreak are the control measures which 
have generally been found to be effective, and to which our present favorable 
situation is undoubtedly due. 

On several farms which have been previously infected we take the precaution 
to annually treat all susceptible animals with antianthrax serum and spore vac- 
cine. An occasional death from the treatment occurs, but very infrequently, and 



P.D. 98. 13 

the majority of the animals are given absolute protection against the infec- 
tion. 

We have one horse barn in the central part of the State which has remained 
infected with anthrax for several years, in spite of as thorough application of 
disinfectants as can be devised. This building is therefore permanently quar- 
antined and no animals are allowed to occupy it except those previously im- 
munized against the disease. 

The communicability of anthrax to the human subject is well recognized, 
more or less danger existing to those whose occupations require the handling of 
hides and wool which may have been taken from infected carcasses of cattle or 
sheep. The Division's work in control of this disease has therefore a public 
health relation of considerable importance. 

Our records for the year show no positive cases of anthrax. Although 1 horse 
and 3 cattle were reported as affected, laboratory examination of specimens, 
gave a negative result. Preventive treatment was applied to 21 cattle and 5 horses. 

Blackleg. — This disease, otherwise designated as " symptomatic anthrax," 
is one to which much that has been said in our reference to that disease will ap- 
ply, especially its sudden development, high mortality rate, resistant powers of 
its causative organisms, and the precautions necessary to prevent its spread. 
It generally develops, however, only during the pasture season and affects 
only the young cattle. It is unusual to find a case in an animal over two and 
one-half or three years of age, adult animals for some reason not being suscep- 
tible except in very rare instances. 

Preventive treatment is also available and is completely successful in nearly 
:all cases if applied before infection has taken place. This protection is consid- 
ered to be effective for a period of one year at least. We have many farms in 
the State where blackleg has existed at one time or another, and we recommend 
that all the young cattle on these places be given the protective treatment, the 
best time for it being just before the cattle are turned out to pasture in the 
Spring. This service is furnished free and we find it quite generally availed of. 
especially in those sections where the disease has at any time prevailed. 

On the occurrence of an outbreak we advise as a precaution the immediate 
removal of all susceptible animals from the pasture in which the disease has 
•developed, and their treatment in prevention of the disease. 

During the year 942 animals have been given protective treatment on 124 
farms located in 43 different towns. Twelve deaths have been reported in un- 
treated animals on farms located in 5 different towns. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, as to disposal 
of infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, are applicable following oc- 
currence of this disease. 

Actinomycosis. — A few cases of this disease are recorded every year and 
are generally disposed of by slaughter without reimbursement to the owner. 
If a case is not serious we allow the owner to have it treated by a private veter- 
inarian and in some cases allow the animal to be held for fattening purposes 
under quarantine restrictions, to be released only for slaughter. 

There have been 12 cases reported this year, one each in ten different towns 
and two in one town. Of these, 8 have been slaughtered, 1 has recovered and 
been released from quarantine, 1 proved to be a case of another disease, and 2 
are undergoing treatment under quarantine restrictions. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This disease, of very great importance 
in some sections of the country, where large numbers of cattle are received 
through public stockyards, does not often occur in this State in the form which 
is reported from those sections. Our cases are of the acute, purely septicemic 
type, developing very rapidly and causing sudden death. At its onset it resem- 
bles anthrax in many of its symptoms and some cases are reported as that dis- 
ease, the diagnosis of hemorrhagic septicemia being arrived at only by labora- 
tory examination of material taken from the carcasses. 

Ordinarily the spread of the disease can be prevented if we have early report 
of its outbreak, by immediate removal of contact animals to other premises and 



14 P.D. 98. 

their treatment by preventive methods. The losses are generally confined to 
the animals first affected, deaths occurring so suddenly that diagnosis is not 
made, and treatment cannot be applied early enough to save them. Our efforts 
are therefore in many instances effective only in saving the other members of the 
herd which may have been exposed to the same infection. 

Our records show that outbreaks of this disease have occurred in eight towns 
this year, in which 17 deaths occurred. Preventive treatment was applied to 93 
head of cattle. 

A flock of 13 sheep in a suburb of Boston was reported as showing symptoms 
of contagious disease, and hemorrhagic septicemia was diagnosed by a Division 
veterinarian. Prompt treatment saved all the animals and stopped the spread of 
the disease. 

Although the function of this Division is the control and eradication of such 
diseases of animals as are contagious or infectious, we naturally have many 
other disease conditions referred to us which are not in that category. Among 
such, and regarding which we have given advice to live-stock owners whenever- 
requested, may be mentioned the following : — tuberculosis in a dog ; poison- 
ing of cattle by eating of fodder which had been sprayed with an arsenic mix- 
ture; foot rot; malignant tumors; tuberculosis in sheep, diagnosis negative; 
parturient paresis; an outbreak of disease causing death of seven young cattle 
at a State institution, no diagnosis made but contagion eliminated. 

Infestation by parasites whose sphere of activity or cycle of existence in 
whole or in part may be in intimate relation to the animal body, externally or 
internally, is a condition often seriously interfering with normal health As such 
a condition may be said to be a communicable one where certain kinds of these 
organisms are the ones involved, the Division is frequently called upon for advice 
as to the best methods of extermination. 

The prevalence of scabies or " mange " affecting horses, cattle or sheep is at 
times widespread and when brought to our attention demands quarantine meas- 
ures. Much less prevalent than formerly, we have had a relatively small number 
of cases to contend with. Thorough application of remedies according to di- 
rections furnished generally results in destruction of the parasites within a 
reasonable period and the infested animals are then released from quarantine. 
Unfortunately many cattle owners are not disposed to carry out the necessary 
treatment or to take proper precautions against a spread of the infestation from 
one animal to another, and in that way they lose much of the normal producing 
power of their animals. There have been 214 cases of mange in cattle reported 
this year on 15 premises in 10 towns, and only 3 infested horses. 

The treatment of conditions due to internal parasites was never before given 
the attention by progressive live-stock raisers which it now commands, and much 
valuable information of a scientific character is now being taken advantage of 
by veterinarians and live-stock owners. AVonderful results are being obtained 
in the way of better growth of young animals and increased production by the 
mature ones, and larger revenue in consequence. 

An instance showing the great loss which may be occasioned by delay in in- 
vestigation of causes of malnutrition is one where we were called in for advice 
and found that 132 sheep had died because infested with stomach worms. The- 
owner was advised to slaughter the remainder of the flock and take precautions 
against such a condition again occurring. 

Nodular disease, a parasitic infestation of the intestinal tract quite common 
in sheep, has not been reported this year, but it probably prevails more or 
less extensively, being often found at the abattoirs at time of slaughter. 

Foot-and-Mouih Disease. — For another year we have been fortunate in not 
experiencing an outbreak of this disease, although at no other period has this 
country been in such great danger of an invasion. Great Britain, since the 
World War, has had the largest number of outbreaks in her history, and has 
been spending millions of dollars for its extermination. It has also prevailed in 
many European and Asiatic countries, and in parts of South America with which 
the United States has intimate trade relations. The contagion is thought to be 



P.D. 98. 15 

very readily transmitted from place to place, and our freedom from an inva- 
sion of it is really remarkable. Live-stock officials of the Nation and the several 
States are very much alive to the impending danger and are ready to take im- 
mediate steps to control the disease on the first report of its appearance. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. — This disease is a specific infection existing in 
practically every section of the country, and for many years has been the cause 
of much anxiety on the part of cattle owners and live-stock officials on account 
of the great losses in breeding efficiency and a consequent diminution in the 
amount of dairy products which animals may be expected to yield under normal 
conditions of health. 

For many years its cause, means of dissemination, and possible methods of 
control have been subjects of study by the most eminent scientific investigators 
in veterinary medicine, and while as yet there is not entire agreement on many 
phases of the subject, yet the wide discussions of it have brought forth the great 
importance of many correlating pathological conditions formerly ignored and 
not considered to be related to the phenomenon of premature birth or to that of 
true abortion. 

The problem of control does not seem at present to be one for the applica- 
tion of regulatory methods by live-stock officials. It is rather to be solved in 
individual herds by private veterinarians who, in addition to well known hygienic 
measures of value, have at hand the evidence of many as to the practicability 
of immunization of animals by the use of biological preparations. 

One State (Georgia) is making the experiment of prohibiting the shipment 
to that State of animals affected with abortion disease. The difficulties attend- 
ing the enforcement of regulations to accomplish control must be many, if all 
interests are to be considered with fairness. The result of Georgia's departure 
in a neiv direction for the protection of its cattle interests by interstate regula- 
tion will be awaited with much interest by this Division. 

We render service in the way of obtaining laboratory diagnosis as to the pres- 
ence of the bacillus abortus in animals. There have been received this year 63 
samples of blood for this diagnosis. They were taken from animals on 11 dif- 
ferent farms. Of these samples, 12 were diagnosed as positive, these 12 coming 
from 6 different farms. 

Other Infectious Diseases. — The finding of tuberculosis in swine at time of 
slaughter often means the presence of that disease in cattle on the same prem- 
ises. Inspectors of slaughtering occasionally bring to our attention cases of 
swine tuberculosis, and we immediately examine all members of the herd of 
cattle for evidence of the disease. Only four cases have been reported this yeai 
from four different towns, but in our opinion many inspectors neglect their duty 
in this direction. 

Among rare cases of infectious disease reported are one of tuberculosis in a 
dog, and one of Johne's disease in a cow. 

Laboratory Service. 

A very important auxiliary to the work of this Division is the laboratory 
service rendered by the bacteriological laboratory of the Department of Public 
Health. 

We have many instances occur in which positive conclusions as to identity of 
disease can only be established by laboratory diagnosis, and in many other in- 
stances we desire confirmation, by laboratory examination, of clinical diagnosis 
made in the field. This service is therefore invaluable, and in many directions 
well nigh indispensable. 

In the control of rabies in many instances we could not proceed properly 
without the information to be gained only by the laboratory examination of the 
brains of animals suspected of the disease or of having been exposed to it. This 
information is of very vital importance from a public health protection point of 
view, when it happens that persons have been bitten by the suspected or ex- 
posed animals. 

During the year the brains of 417 animals have been examined for diagnosis 



16 P.D. 98. 

as to the presence of rabies infection. This number is a reduction from last 
year of 66 examinations. 

In the control of glanders the laboratory examination of samples of blood 
taken from horses suspected of or exposed to this disease is found necessary. 
Complement-fixation tests of 140 blood samples have been made this year. 

In addition to the above, 20 specimens have been examined taken from ani- 
mals suspected of the following diseases: anthrax, 3; blackleg, 1; glanders, 3; 
hemorrhagic septicemia, 9; tuberculosis, 2; Johne's disease, 1. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

Under the provisions of section 19, chapter 129 of the General Laws, an order 
was issued by the Director on Jan. 10, 1923, to every inspector of animals in the 
cities and towns of the Commonwealth calling for an inspection of all cattle, 
sheep and swine and of the premises where kept. 

This order called for the completion of the inspection by March 1, and for a 
report of the same to be promptly forwarded to the Division's office. The in- 
spectors' reports came forward in most instances in good season and were duly 
examined and tabulated in minute detail. 

These reports first of all constitute a " census " of the cattle, sheep and swine 
on the 3.1,000 farms or premises in the State where these species of animals are 
kept. From these reports the following interesting facts are gathered : — 

The number of cattle of all kinds has decreased from the 1922 record of 
237,186 to 232,090 in 1923, a difference of 5,096 head. This year's record is, 
however, still above that of 1921 by about 1,100 head, and approximately 5,300 
head above the record of 1920. 

The number of dairy cows we find to have reduced by 509 head from the 
number recorded in 1922. The number this year is, however, greater than in 
1921 by 8,169 head, and exceeds that of 1920 by 13,954, the total for this year 
being 168,361. 

As the records for fifty years show the average number of dairy cows in 
Massachusetts to have been approximately 160,000, it can be truthfully said 
that this class of food-producing animals are holding their own as far as num- 
bers are concerned, but it must be admitted are unfortunately not keeping pace 
with the fast increasing population. 

The number of swine has been steadily decreasing for the past five years. 
During the World War pork production was so stimulated that the number of 
swine raised in the State increased very rapidly, those recorded reaching a num- 
ber of over 100,000. Due to a constantly lowering market in recent years the 
swine industry has rapidly declined and inspectors this year record only 62,766 
found upon the farms visited, a reduction of 5,813 head from the previous year. 

The number of sheep has also continued to decrease, only 11,633 being re- 
corded this year, a number less by 1,909 than in 1922. This decline in the sheep 
industry has also been a gradual one, the number now on the farms having de- 
creased 33 per cent since 1917. 

Several factors have undoubtedly entered into the decline in the sheep and 
swine industries, one of which is the increasing prices of feed and another the 
lowering prices of marketed carcasses. 

Referring to the service of local inspectors of animals in their annual ex- 
amination of all cattle, sheep and swine, and the premises on which they are 
kept, it should be said that in the great majority of towns and cities the work 
has been thoroughly and faithfully attended to. It has happened that in a few 
towns the work has not been of a character to be commended and reports of 
the inspection have been very much delayed, no report being received this year 
from two towns. It will probably be necessary therefore for the Director to 
exercise the coming year his prerogative of disapproval of the renomination of 
such inspectors as have not rendered satisfactory service. 

A capable inspector who performs his duty faithfully and promptly is a valu- 
able asset to" the live-stock industry of his community and is a public health 
auxiliary of no small importance. It happens in most of the smaller towns, 



P.D.98. 17 

however, that his remuneration is not commensurate with the value of good 
service, and this condition in some communities lowers the high standard to 
which we would like to see this valuable work attain in every city and town. 

Meetings of local town and city inspectors were held this year at Greenfield, 
Pittsfield, Springfield, Worcester, Falmouth and Boston. These meetings, called 
primarily for the purpose of discussing matters relating to the service in which 
the inspectors and officials of the Division are mutually interested, were this 
year thrown open to the public, and the eradication of bovine tuberculosis under 
the tuberculin testing law was made the principal subject for discussion. The 
attendance of inspectors was fairly good, but the number of cattle owners, or of 
the general public who came to the meetings, was disappointingly small. 

District veterinarians have made 772 visits to premises where unsanitary 
conditions existed and which local inspectors had failed in having corrected. 
In the majority of instances the final result has been a satisfactory improvement. 

Reports of Rendering Companies. 

Section 154 of chapter 111 of the General Laws requires rendering companies 
to report to this Division every animal received by them which is found to be 
infected with a contagious disease, and the information thus furnished is of 
value in bringing to the attention of the Division occasional cases of these dis- 
eases which otherwise would not be known. 

Twenty-two reports covering 50 cases of contagious diseases were received 
from rendering companies, 4 of which had not been otherwise recorded. 

Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 126, Acts of 

1923 

Expended during the year for the salary of the Director . 
Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, 

chapter 126, Acts of 1923 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers . . $8,615 66 
Extra clerical and stenographic service ... 33 75 



$3,500 00 
$3,500 00 

$9,300 00 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



$8,649 41 
650 59 



Appropriation for services other than personal, including printing 
the annual report, traveling expenses of the Director, and 
office supplies and equipment, chapter 126, Acts of 1923 
Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books and maps ... . . $107 99 

Express and messenger service 

Postage .... 

Printing report . 

Other printing 

Telephone and telegrams 

Stationery and office supplies 

Expenses of the Director 



$9,300 00 
$6,200 00 



Total expenditure . 
Unexpended balance . 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians 
and agents engaged in the work of extermination 
of contagious diseases among domestic animals, 
chapter 126, Acts of 1923 

Brought forward from 1922 appropriation . . . . 
Total amount appropriated . 



209 66 
555 49 
107 24 
714 27 
699 97 
1,149 36 
468 24 

$4,012 22 
2,187 78 



$6,200 00 



$48,000 00 
18 00 



$48,018 00 



18 



Expended during- the year for the following purposes : — 



P.D. 98. 



Services of regular agents 
Services of per diem agents 
Labor hired . 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance 



$31,187 58 

6,332 00 

104 00 

$37,623 58 
10,394 42 



Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veteri- 
narians and agents, chapter 126, Acts of 1923 . $23,000 00 
Brought forward from 1922 appropriation . ... 4 50 



Total amount appropriated ..... 
Expended during the year for the following pur- 
poses : ■ — 

Traveling expenses of regular agents .... 

Traveling expenses of per diem agents 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance 



. $16,064 52 
2,953 71 

. $19,018 23 
3,986 27 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle and horses 
killed during the present and previous years, travel, when 
allowed, of inspectors of animals, incidental expenses of kill- 
ing and burial, quarantine and emergency services, and 
for laboratory and veterinary supplies and equipment, chapter 

126, Acts of 1923 . 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
985 head of cattle condemned and killed on account 
of tuberculosis in 1916, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 

1923, paid for in 1923 $25,608 50 

18 horses condemned and killed on account cf glanders 900 00 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors .... 292 89 

Laundry ......... 357 05 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants . . . 315 86 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc 498 81 

Ear-tags ; punches, chains, etc. ..... 1,515 52 

Expenses of killing and burial ..... 218 83 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals . 454 58 

Quarantine expenses ....... 62 00 

Rent of halls for inspectors' meetings .... 18 50 

Sundries 48 00 



$30,290 54 * 
1,709 46 



Total expenditures 
Unexpended balance . 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cer- 
tain cattle killed in accordance with agreements 
made under authority of chapters 353 and 546, 
Acts of 1922 . $100,000 00 

Brought forward from 1922 transfer from the Ex- 
traordinary fund 5,000 00 

Brought forward from 1922 appropriation . . . 7,110 68 

Total amount appropriated . . 

Expended during the year for the following : 

2,283 head of cattle killed (chapter 353, Acts of 1922) $67,835 22 
Unexpended balance 44,275 46 



$48,018 00 



$23,004 50 



$23,004 50 



$32,000 00 



$32,000 00 



$112,110 68 



$112,110 68 



i This amount reduced by $31.50 refunded on account of expense of previous years. 



P.D. 98. 19 

The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle for the year is 
-$24.27. 

Fifty-seven claims for reimbursement for cattle condemned and killed as 
physical cases of tuberculosis during the year remain unsettled, these claims 
amounting to $1,355. 

One hundred and two unpaid claims covering 1,011 cattle, to which provi- 
sions of chapter 353, Acts of 1922, apply, remain unpaid, amounting to 
$28,367.10. 

Two claims amounting to $100, applying to horses condemned and killed 
during the year because affected with glanders, remain unsettled. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of hides and carcasses 
of condemned animals $127.60. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, Director. 



APPENDIX. 
The following graphs show the work of the Division of Animal Industry in 
control of the principal contagious diseases of animals for a period of years. 



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Public Document Nd. 98 



®Ijp (ftattmtomuralty of HaoHarbuartta 



ANNUAL REPORT 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



Year ending November 30, 1924 



Department of Conservation 




Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
675-3-12-25. Order 1182 



OF TH? COMMONWEALTH 



£ Commontoealtfj of jlfla^acljugettg 

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, November 30, 1924. 
To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

I have the honor to present the following report of the work of this Division 
for the year ending November 30, 1924. 

The Division attempts first of all to prevent the outbreak of contagious disease 
among our domestic animals, and to that extent assist in maintaining them in a 
condition of health. If such can be accomplished it operates to render them a 
source of revenue to their owners and to conserve in great measure that portion 
of the public food supply derived from their products while living and from their 
carcasses when slaughtered. The quality and nutritive value of this portion of 
our food supply is also found to be in direct ratio to the health of the animals 
producing it. 

The dairying industry depends for its success on the production of large quan- 
tities of animal products of standard quality, and for good volume and high quality 
healthy animals are a first necessity. Neither propagation in sufficient numbers 
nor satisfactory development to maturity or to the point where their products 
become a source of revenue can be expected in animals affected with any form of 
contagious disease. 

The relation of animal disease to the public health should be referred to. A 
diseased animal is sometimes found to be the source of the contagion of glanders, 
tuberculosis, rabies, anthrax, and other diseases appearing in the human subject. 
Such cases are fortunately of rare occurrence but their high mortality rate when 
attacking man calls attention to the vital importance of controlling these maladies 
at their most common source, and if possible eradicating them entirely from the 
animal kingdom. 

Whereas the work of the Division this year in many of its less important branches 
has been of approximately the same volume as of recent years, the request for 
service in our most important branch — the control and eradication of bovine 
tuberculosis — has called for largely increased activity. The provisions of the 
so-called tuberculin test law have proven to be of such great aid to the progressive 
cattle owner who desires to raise and use only healthy cattle, and the number of 
local health boards which have directed their attention to the public health phase 
of the movement to eradicate all disease from animals whose dairy products are 
used for human consumption have so rapidly increased, that the result has been 
a greatly increased demand for our service in this direction. 

It has happened that the general popularity of this work has far exceeded our 
expectations, and while we have been physically equipped to attend to all requests 
for the application of the tuberculin test, the exhaustion of funds appropriated for 
payment of indemnities for reacting cattle necessitated a slowing up of the work 
during the latter part of the fiscal year. We have on file a large number of requests 
from farmers, dairymen and the raisers of purebred cattle, to place their herds 
under our supervision for the eradication of tuberculosis, and it would seem that 
the amount of progress we may expect to make the coming year in this direction 
will depend largely on the funds appropriated by the incoming legislature for 
payment for cattle found to be diseased. 

The prevalence of rabies is at all times a condition which calls for prompt atten- 
tion on the part of this Division. Although somewhat reduced from the record 
of recent years it is still a situation of dire importance calling for strict regulatory 
measures. The lax enforcement of the dog laws and the lack of co-operation on 
the part of the public in ordinary preventive measures are often the cause of 
serious outbreaks of the disease, or make their control a much more serious problem. 

The prevention of contagious diseases of swine constitutes quite an important 
part of the work of the Division, in volume amounting this year to about the same 
as in recent years. 



P. D. 98 3 

While our recommendations to swine owners are for them to call for our service 
before sickness appears in their herds so that the animals may be given the present 
day successful immunization against disease, nevertheless it often occurs that they 
wait until too late for preventive treatment to be successful. 

Hog Cholera, Hemorrhagic Septicemia and various mixed infections are the 
contagious diseases prevalent in this species and for the control of which our 
service is rendered. 

The regular continuous duties of inspection of horses, cattle, sheep and swine 
and of the sanitary conditions under which they are kept, execution of measures 
in prevention, cure or control of contagious diseases among all the several species 
of domestic animals, and the condemnation and slaughter when necessary of such 
as are affected with certain forms of such diseases, followed by supervision of the 
burial or other disposal of their carcasses, have been attended to promptly and in 
accordance with the methods found by many years' experience to be most effective. 

The enforcement of regulations applying to the transportation of animals from 
other states to Massachusetts is another important duty of this Division, as by 
these methods we make sure that no prevalence of contagious disease shall be 
caused by the entry of infected animals. Mallein testing of horses from certain 
states in which glanders has extensively prevailed, and tuberculin testing of dairy 
or breeding cattle shipped from other states and not accompanied by satisfactory 
records of tuberculin test, are continuous activities calling for prompt determina- 
tion of actual health conditions at time of entry. Although Federal regulations 
now require that all cattle of whatever age shipped from one state to another for 
any purpose except immediate slaughter shall have passed a tuberculin test applied 
by an approved veterinarian before the shipment takes place, and we ordinarily 
depend on this regulation being complied with by cattle shippers, yet we find that 
many cases of violation occur either intentionally or through ignorance of the 
existence of any regulatory measures of the United States government applying 
to this class of interstate commerce. In such instances official action becomes 
immediately necessary in protection of the live-stock interests of the state, and all 
animals involved are immediately inspected and tuberculin tested. Failure to 
pass inspection and test requires condemnation and killing, without indemnity to 
owner unless post-mortem examination discloses no evidence of disease. 

Following is a gross summary of the Division's work for the year ending Novem- 
ber 30, 1924: — 

GENERAL SUMMARY 

Cattle 

2,372 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by inspectors. 
417 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians at 
Brighton stockyards. 
30,174 tuberculin tests of Massachusetts cattle were made by Federal and State 
veterinarians in co-operation. 
1,542 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 
9,917 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test records 

viseed. 
5,755 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other points. 
855 animals on 111 farms in 48 towns were given preventive treatment against 
c blackleg. 
19 animals were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 
59 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic septicemia. 
403 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 

Horses 

242 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 
2,500 interstate horses were examined by inspectors. 

4 tests of whole stables were made by Division veterinarians. 

Dogs 
1,080 cases of possible rabies in dogs were investigated. 



4 P. D. 98 

Swine 

73,290 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 

28,208 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases 
216 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis 

The division's work in the control and eradication of this disease has been 
carried on this year by continuation of the policies formulated in 1922 for the 
administration of the so-called tuberculin test law (chapter 353, Acts of 1922). 

In addition to work under the provisions of that law we resumed on August 
first of this year reimbursement to owners for animals which on physical exami- 
nation alone were found to be diseased ; we have done this under the provisions 
of a law which is practically a re-enactment of one formerly on the statute books 
for many years, but which was repealed in 1922. The conditions which arose as 
a result of this repeal were recognized as having a very deterrent influence on the 
eradication work as a whole and efforts were therefore made to have enacted a law 
carrying similar provisions to the one repealed. These efforts were successful, 
and we have worked under the re-enacted law's provisions for the latter portion 
of the year, a period of approximately four months. 

Under these two plans of eradication more effective work has been possible and 
we feel that more real progress has been made this year in the extermination of 
tuberculosis than during any similar period in the history of this service. 

While the extent of the disease in our herds as revealed by the tuberculin test 
has been somewhat appalling and calls attention to the enormity of the problem 
of eradication as a whole, we feel confident that if the work can be continued in a 
vigorous way under present policies of administration over a period of years, the 
result cannot but be satisfactory and justify the large expenditure of time, labor 
and money which the procedure will entail. 

If the work goes on in accordance with recommendations justified by this year's 
results, it is possible that we will soon be able to show a gradual diminution in the 
prevalence of this great plague which for many years has devastated our herds and 
has caused such a great economic loss to cattle raisers, to milk producers, to the 
many business interests allied to the livestock industry, not to mention its very 
great influence on the public health. 

In Massachusetts, as in all other States of the Union, the Federal government is 
co-operating in this work under the provisions of its "accredited tuberculosis-free 
herd plan," instituted in 1917 by its Bureau of Animal Industry. In the seven 
years during which this plan has been in operation in different parts of the country 
in connection with local State activities, the combined service has progressed to a 
point where it is recognized as a public work of undoubted value. Its increasing 
popularity from year to year, as attested by the large number of herds voluntarily 
submitted for test under its regulations, and the published statistics of its practical 
workings both in individual herds and in defined areas such as towns or whole 
counties where all the cattle have been tested, would seem to indicate that this 
plan was well conceived, has been efficiently administered, and has accomplished 
wonderful results in the eradication of the disease. 

The official tuberculin test under the provisions of Massachusetts laws is applied 
only on request of the cattle owner, and only if he agrees to comply with the rules 
and regulations devised for proper administration of the law. The principal pro- 
visions of these rules and regulations refer to the disposal of animals which react 
to the test, the cleansing, disinfection and necessary repairs of the premises where 
they are found, and the determination of the health conditions of the cattle to 
be afterwards added to these herds under official supervision. 

We find the requests for this service showing a steady increase in number from 
month to month as cattle owners become more thoroughly informed of the oppor- 
tunity which it offers for elimination of diseased animals from their herds under 
conditions allowing fairly liberal reimbursement for them. We also find other 
potent factors influencing their decisions. In many communities different civic 



P. D. 98 .... . 5 

or welfare organizations are now discussing the desirability of regulating by muni- 
cipal authority the purity of their milk supply in this particular direction by 
prohibiting the sale of raw milk unless produced by animals which have passed a 
tuberculin test. Several municipalities have already taken this action. Many 
milk producers have foreseen the probable establishment in the near future of 
regulations of this kind and have decided it to be good business policy to get their 
herds into a condition where they can at once comply with the new requirements 
when instituted. 

At the end of the year, November 30, 1924, we have 195 herds comprising 6,186 
cattle which have been accredited by the Federal government as tuberculosis-free. 

Animals in accredited tuberculosis-free herds command an increased price when 
offered for sale, and their market value is bound to still further advance as testing 
becomes more general and the demand for clean cattle becomes greater. Dairy 
products from herds which can be officially certified to as healthy are already in 
greater demand at advanced rates than the present supply can fulfill. 

There are, therefore, many reasons for the rapidly increasing number of requests 
for our service under the new law, and we foresee that the end of the coming year 
will show very many herds added to our list as tuberculosis-free. New requests 
for this service are constantly being presented, and on November 30 there were 
157 on file, which will be complied with as soon as possible. 

- Following is the year's record of tuberculin tests under the provisions of chapter 
353, Acts of 1922: — 

Total number of herds tested: 1,383. 

Total number of cattle tested: 30,174 (purebreds 11,910, grades 18,264) : passed 
the test, 24,549: reacted, 5,625: percentage of reactions: 18.6. 

First test, 650 herds, 11,418 cattle: passed, 6,818: reacted, 4,600: percentage of 
reactions: 40.2. 

Second test 335 herds, 4,689 cattle: passed, 4,173: reacted, 516: percentage of 
reactions: 11. 

Third test, 297 herds, 10,232 cattle: passed, 9,737: reacted, 495: percentage of 
reactions: 4.8. 

Tests made of 101 herds comprising 3,835 cattle previously accredited and due 
for retest, showed only 14 reactors, i.e., thirty-six one hundredths of 1 per cent. 

In commenting on the above statistics attention is again directed to the fact that 
although the percentage of reacting cattle found — all records of tests being in- 
cluded — is 18.6, that figure does not correctly indicate the prevalence of the 
disease, as the records on which it is computed comprise not only first tests of 
herds but also the retests subsequently made in many of the same herds after the 
animals reacting to previous tests had been removed. A better basis on which 
to estimate the percentage of tuberculous cattle in the State which the tuberculin 
test would disclose if applied to all herds would be the results we have obtained 
by first tests only. The percentage so computed from this year's records is 40.2, 
which figure is much higher than that of last year, showing an advance from 31 
per cent. This again is not a sound basis for computation as much of our work 
this year has been in herds kept for dairying purposes of an intensive character, 
whose owners have really been forced to call for the test because of local health 
regulations which demand tested herds as a necessary condition for the granting 
of permits for the sale of raw milk. 

A comparison between the number of reactors found in grade animals and those 
found in purebreds shows 24.5 per cent of the former and only 9 per cent of the 
latter. 

This may be accounted for largely by the fact that many purebred herds, on 
account of their high values, have been kept free from the disease by constant 
testing by private veterinarians over a period of years, while herds of grade animals 
of less money value have not been given similar attention. 

As clearly showing what a continuous use of the tuberculin test may be expected 
to accomplish, a comparison of percentages of reactors found on first, second and 
third tests, showing a decrease from 40.2 per cent on first tests to 11 per cent on 
second tests and thence to 4.8 per cent on third tests, is at once convincing. There 
seems to be no doubt that continued work of this kind, efficiently and faitlifully 
carried out, with due regard for all the necessary precautions against re-infection, 
will result in rapid progress toward elimination of the disease. 



? . . P. D. 98 

An "accredited" herd is one which has passed three semi-annual or two annual 
tests without a reacting animal having been found, and our record of the retests 
of such herds, showing that only thirty-six one hundredths of one per cent reacted, 
indicates that continuous tuberculin testing with "accreditation" in view is well 
worth while from the standpoints both of the cattle owner and of the officials in 
charge of the control of this disease. 

On October 15, 1923, a regulation went into effect at the Brighton stockyards, 
requiring that all cattle sold at those premises, unless for immediate slaughter! 
must have passed a tuberculin test. Formerly cattle arriving at those premises 
from Massachusetts farms were not tested and were sold without restriction. 

The Brighton stockyards is an important distributing center for dairy cattle, 
and it would seem a very necessary control measure that the animals there sold to 
go to the farms in different parts of the State should be tuberculosis-free. The 
good effect of this regulation as an eradication measure has already been shown 
by the record of a full year's work under its provisions. During the year, 4,112 
head of dairy cattle from Massachusetts farms have been received at the Brighton 
stockyards; 3,689 were immediately released for sale as they were accompanied 
by satisfactory certificates showing record of a recent tuberculin test made by an 
approved veterinarian; the remaining 423 were held for a test by our veterinarians. 
Of these latter, 4 were released for slaughter and not tested, 2 were returned to 
owner because not in condition to test, 314 were tested and passed as tuberculosis- 
free, and 103 showed a reaction to the test. Of these reactors 91 were slaughtered 
and 12 were returned to the premises from which they came, each animal bearing 
an ear tag identifying it as a reactor. Chapter 156 of the Acts of 1924 provides 
punishment for any person who removes the tag from a reacting animal, who in 
any way disposes of the animal for any purpose except slaughter, or who neglects 
or refuses to have slaughtered a reacting animal sold to him for that purpose. The 
percentage of diseased animals disclosed by the test (25 per cent) proves the value 
of this regulation, and points to its efficacy as a means of limiting the spread of 
bovine tuberculosis from farm to farm within the State. 

Interstate Cattle 

Federal regulations applying to the shipment of dairy or breeding cattle from 
one State to another now require that all animals of that class of whatever age 
shall have passed a recent tuberculin test before the shipment takes place, an 
exception to this regulation being that animals from "accredited tuberculosis- 
free" herds ma}' be shipped interstate without additional test. 

These Federal regulations relieve us to a large extent of the former necessity 
of applying the tuberculin test to the majority of cattle arriving within the State, 
and consequently this branch of our work has been very much diminished since 
this Federal regulation became operative. 

The legislature of 1924 passed a new law applying to cattle shipped to Massa- 
chusetts to be used for dairy purposes. Whereas, formerly they could be shipped 
without test to premises designated by the United States Department of Agri- 
culture as "public stockyards" and there quarantined and tuberculin tested, the 
new Massachusetts law requires that they shall be inspected before shipment to 
this State, and passed as healthy by either a Federal or State veterinarian. The 
word "inspected" in this law is interpreted to mean tuberculin tested. 

Our inspectors stationed at the Brighton stockyards which premises are classified 
by the Federal Department of Agriculture as "public stockyards" are thus relieved 
of a certain amount of tuberculin testing. It is necessary, however, to vise the 
records accompanying these cattle and identify the animals as the ones recorded; 
so we are not relieved to any great extent of the inspection service maintained for 
many years at this point. We still find it advisable to occasionally apply check 
tests on cattle shipped as "passed the test" to make sure that the efficiency of the 
testing is up to the proper standard and that dishonesty or misrepresentation has 
not been practiced. 

The Receiving Station for cattle consigned to the Brighton market formerly 
maintained at Watertown has been discontinued and the only one now maintained 
outside of Brighton is at Somerville, where the animals are under the same quar- 
antine regulations a« at the main yards at Brighton. 



P. D. 98 7 

During the year 11,375 interstate dairy cattle have been received at Brighton, 
either shipped thereto direct or through the other receiving stations mentioned. 
Of these, 3,746 were from New Hampshire, 4,521 from Maine, 2,760 from Ver- 
mont, 347 from New York, and 1 from Rhode Island. Of the total number 
received 9,917 were released for sale on approved records of tuberculin test, and 
1,458 were held for test by State and Federal officials, the reactors being slaughtered. 
At other points in the State there have been received 5,755 dairy or breeding 
cattle from other States, all tuberculin tested either before shipment or immedi- 
ately after arrival in cases where interstate regulations have not been complied 
with through ignorance or wilful intent. 

The total number of dairy or breeding cattle received from other States at all 
points in Massachusetts shows a grand total of 17,130, approximately the same 
number as in 1923, a decrease, however, of 312. 

Contagious Diseases of Swine 

Hog Cholera is the principal disease of swine that is contagious and the one which 
originally directed the attention of live-stock officials to the importance of apply- 
ing measures of control to diseases affecting that species. Eleven years ago when 
the campaign against this disease was first started in Massachusetts, it was pre- 
vailing so extensively that many whole herds were being wiped out of existence, 
or the deaths were so many that swine production as an industry was rapidly 
being abandoned on account of the financial losses sustained. A large proportion 
of swine raisers, who had previously been successful in the production of pork for 
the market by the utilization of garbage for feeding the animals, were being forced 
to abandon this cheap material for other of much higher cost, or go out of business. 
All the elements necessary to perfect nutrition and rapid growth of swine are to 
be found in ordinary household garbage, and the feeding of this material, which 
in many communities had been entirely wasted, originally promised to become 
not only a great community economy but also the foundation of a successful 
business. The venture, however, was proving disastrous on account of garbage 
frequently being the carrier of disease by scraps of tissue originally coming from 
swine slaughtered and sold after being affected with hog cholera, and not until 
the development of a treatment by which swine could be immunized against this 
infection could they be safely raised to marketable age in sufficiently large numbers 
to be profitable. 

When this Division undertook a campaign against the prevalence of hog cholera, 
immunization had already been successfully developed by the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry and has since been progressively improved to the 
point where it is now generally recognized as a safe, effective and inexpensive 
treatment, sure to prevent the disease if properly administered before infection 
takes place. We have therefore always urged all swine owners to have their 
herds protected by applying early to this Division for this service, which is ren- 
dered free of charge, the owner having to pay only for the materials used. 

As in many other ways where people are unmindful or careless of their own best 
interests, swine owners often delay their requests for service until too late for 
complete protection against disaster, as we can only partially avert their losses if 
hog cholera has already broken out on their premises. However, even in such 
cases we are generally able to minimize losses to a degree well worth while, but 
always regret financial losses that were really preventable. 

There can be no doubt of the great economic value of the work of the Division 
in the prevention of contagious diseases of swine. It is a work of real conserva- 
tion, second only in importance to our work in the control and eradication of 
bovine tuberculosis. 

When we are able to immunize swine against the ravages of one disease only 
(hog cholera) we are doing much to increase that portion of the food supply which 
is produced within the State and at the same time are helping to make the raising 
of swine a profitable industry. While hog cholera is the most disastrous of swine 
diseases and our work in its prevention is perhaps of more importance than in the 
treatment of other contagious diseases of that species, yet the occurrence of other 
infections in which our services are frequently sought is a matter of no small 
importance to the swine raiser. 



8 . ; P. D. 98 

Being called to immunize a herd of swine against hog cholera we frequently 
find some other condition as the cause of trouble and which in some instances 
co-exists with cholera. 

The skill of a trained field veterinarian is often put to a severe test in differenti- 
ating between two diseases somewhat alike in their exhibition of symptoms, and 
if multiple infections are found to determine which of them is the primary cause 
and then use his knowledge — gained only by experience '- — to map out a combi- 
nation treatment which will be effective in reducing the mortalities. Our veteri- 
narians, many of whom have been engaged in this branch of our work for several 
years, have become very expert as diagnosticians and are rendering service which 
seems to be effective in control of disease and at the same time very satisfactory 
to swine owners. There is no other work in our Division in which correct diag- 
nosis, arrived at promptly, means more to successful outcome of treatment than 
in the control of contagious diseases of swine. 

During this year there have been 73,290 treatments applied to swine in the 
prevention or cure of hog cholera, an increase of 6,663 treatments over those 
applied in the previous year. The animals comprised 607 herds varying in size 
from one pig only to some exceeding 4,000 in number. These herds were located 
in 196 cities and towns and required the making of 1,628 visits by one or more 
field veterinarians. 

Attention is directed to a graph in the appendix to this report showing the 
number of treatments applied year by year since the work was begun, and showing 
also that the present year has been our busiest one in this direction. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Swine. — This disease, otherwise known as "swine 
plague" has prevailed to a somewhat increased extent this year — our records 
showing that the number of treatments applied total 28,208, an increase of 1,668, 
over the previous year. It may be the case, however, that no mo-e swine have 
been affected but that more owners have become convinced of the advisability 
of treating their swine in prevention of this infection as well as in immunization 
against hog cholera. In many instances treatment for both diseases are applied 
at the same time when conditions are favorable for such combination. 

Private veterinarians may use without official restriction the various biological 
preparations manufactured for treatment of this disease, and in some sections of 
the State many swine are treated by them with a marked degree of success. It 
happens, however, that in many outbreaks of this disease the owner fears hog 
cholera as the cause of the sickness shown, and applies to this Division for its 
service; the animals involved in that way come under our supervision and we 
render proper service in the emergency. 

Animals treated for hemorrhagic septicema are this year three times in number 
of those treated two years ago — showing the increase of our work in this direction 
to be a rapid one. 

Rabies 

From the control point of view rabies is one of the most important diseases of 
a specific infectious nature which affects domesticated animals. Because of its 
high mortality rate, its constant prevalence in practically all countries and its 
ready communicability to animals and man the problem of its control demands 
constant attention. 

The disease prevails mostly among dogs and they are the means by which it 
is generally spread, but all animals are susceptible to it and under circumstances 
favorable to its communicability may become its victims. Being readily trans- 
mitted to the human subject by the medium of bites there is more or less danger 
to the public in a community where an unusual prevalence occurs. 

The public health side of the problem of control of this disease is recognized as 
an important one and one which requires close co-operation on the part of Division 
officials with State and Municipal health authorities and with medical and vet- 
erinary practitioners who may be brought into connection with cases which involve 
the exposure of animals or persons to the infection. 

By the use of the Pasteur treatment it has been possible for some years to pre- 
vent development of the disease in persons who have been bitten by rabid animals, 
and the development of the preventive treatment for animals has now been brought 



P. D. 98 9 

to a degree of perfection where its results are comparable with those of the Pasteur 
treatment of the human subject. 

Owners of dogs may now have their animals completely immunized against the 
disease so that even if exposed by the bite of a rabid animal development of the 
disease seldom takes place. 

If the preventive inoculation of dogs against rabies, — now proven so successful 
— could have a country-wide application it would be a most powerful factor in 
the control of the disease. The fact that wild animals are often victims of this 
disease, and are not subject to control, may operate, however, to keep the infec- 
tion alive and maintain it at a high degree of virulence. It is therefore improbable 
that complete extermination can be looked for in the near future. 

The prevalence of rabies might be limited to an almost negligible point if the 
dog laws now on the Statute books were completely enforced. The compulsory 
licensing of dogs would first of all greatly reduce their numbers, and if stray and 
ownerless dogs were impounded and disposed of, and the more valuable ones 
immunized against the disease, a rapid disappearance of this world-wide infection 
would undoubtedly take place. 

In 1922 the general prevalence of rabies in Massachusetts had gradually in- 
creased from the year 1918, progressively spreading from one community to 
another, sometimes disappearing from one section of the Stat£ only to be found 
breaking out in another, so that the total number of cases recorded in the State 
as a whole remained at a high point. In 1922, however, the disease seemed to 
have arrived at the peak of its prevalence; it remained nearly stationary during 
1923, and the present year's record shows a decided drop in the number of positive 
cases. We confidently look forward to a still greater lowering of the number in 
1925. 

The control of rabies in any one community can generally be accomplished 
fairly promptly if we can get all agencies co-operating to this end. Among these 
agencies strict enforcement of the dog license laws is of great importance. Un- 
fortunately, however, these laws seem to be practically ignored in many towns 
and cities or are only spasmodically enforced. Many dogs, especially those of low 
grade and value, would be destroyed if any one was obliged to pay for a license to 
keep them, and, as animals of this class are very potent factors in the spread of 
rabies, the lax enforcement of the dog license laws is an unfortunate condition, 
especially in communities where an outbreak of rabies has occurred and control 
measures of every kind are necessary to its suppression. 

Selectmen, mayors and boards of aldermen have the authority to issue orders 
calling for the muzzling or restraining of the dogs in their municipalities whenever 
the same seems to be necessary. In the excitement attending a fresh outbreak 
of this disease, when public opinion is acutely alive to the dangers of the situation, 
such orders are deemed necessary and are at first generally well observed by the 
dog owners and well enforced by the police authorities. As soon, however, as the 
first excitement has subsided, we find that in many instances there is no observance 
of them by the public, no enforcement by the authorities, and conditions relax to 
the same level of non-attention as in case of the State laws regarding the licensing 
of dogs. 

Effective control of rabies in any community is not to be gained in a short time, 
and how to offset the perplexing conditions of non-observance and non-enforce- 
ment of State laws and local regulations is yet a problem. 

Dogs which have been exposed to a positive case of rabies are ordinarily quar- 
antined for a period of 90 days, but if owners have them immunized we deem it 
safe to release them from quarantine when 21 days have elapsed following the 
completion of the treatment if no symptoms of rabies have developed daring that 
time. 

During the year ending November 30, 1924, 1,607 animals were reported to the 
Division for diagnosis, observation or quarantine on account of the prevalence of 
rabies, and 73 reported cases were brought forward from the year 1923. Of these 
1,080 animals, 310 dogs, 7 cattle, 1 cat and 2 horses proved to be positive cases. 
Diagnoses were made either by clinical symptoms, or laboratory examination of 
brains, supplemented in many instances by the inoculation of small animals. 

Comparing these statistics with our records of the year 1923 we find that there 
have been 139 fewer positive cases this year. This reduction in one year of approx- 



10 m P. D. 98 

innately 30 per cent in the number of positive cases augurs well for a still more 
satisfactory record for the coming year. 

The Division received reports during the year of 1,004 persons who had been 
bitten by dogs, and 10 persons who were bitten by cats. In all cases reported of 
persons bitten, the local inspector of animals of the town or city where the animal 
is owned or kept is ordered to make an examination of the animal, and, even if it 
appears to be healthy, to have it quarantined for a period of 14 days for obser- 
vation. This is a measure directly in protection of the public health. If by any 
chance the biting animal is affected with rabies at the time the bite is inflicted, 
unmistakable clinical symptoms of the disease will probably appear before the end 
of the quarantine" period, and in such cases the bitten persons will have definite 
knowledge of that fact and will seek medical advice. If at the end of the 14-day 
period animals which are quarantined on account of biting persons have not de- 
veloped symptoms of rabies, they are released from quarantine. 

The majority of the animals which inflicted bites on 1,014 persons as above 
recorded, were released at the end of the quarantine period showing no symptoms 
of rabies. 

Of the 1,680 animals reported for observation 89 dogs and 3 cats were — as far 
as could be ascertained — ownerless, and the dogs unlicensed, and 46 of these 
ownerless dogs proved to be positive cases of rabies. 

Glanders 

What seems to be approximate extermination of glanders is the present situa- 
tion in Massachusetts regarding that disease. 

A graph in the appendix to this report of Division activities for the year, shows 
at a glance the rapidly decreasing prevalence of this disease for the past twelve 
years reaching in 1924 the lowest point ever recorded by this office during its more 
than thirty years experience in its work of control. The occurrence of only six 
cases during the twelve months and the location of one-half of them in one town 
and in one stable, shows that general prevalence of this disease no longer exists. 
All of the cases this year have occurred in a section near^ to the border line of an 
adjoining State, the capital city of which is a market for the cheaper class of 
horses and where auctions are held weekly. It is also the nearest horse market 
to this particular section of Massachusetts. As the disease has been practically 
exterminated in all other sections of our own State, we believe that the horse 
market of the neighboring State referred to is the source whence comes the majority 
of our cases. 

While our regulations require that all horses coming into the State from that 
source be accompanied by a permit from this office, we are well aware that the 
regulations are frequently violated and surreptitious interstate movement often 
takes place. 

The practical extermination of glanders has been due first of all to the use of 
modern methods of diagnosis, including in such the mallein testing of all horses 
exposed to the disease such as the stable mates of all positive cases; the closing of 
public watering troughs in towns and cities where cases have occurred has been 
a very potent factor in limiting the extension of local outbreaks; the decreasing 
number of horses now used for commercial purposes, and their better working 
conditions are also factors in the improving situation. The horse's work-day has 
been shortened and he has been largely relieved by the motor truck of the heart- 
breaking long hauls of heavy loads which formerly were his task. The effort of 
various organizations having his welfare as their principal object has done much 
to educate his caretaker to an understanding of his needs and to a realization of 
his greater usefulness if well fed, comfortably stabled and properly cared for. All 
of these are influences of value in the control and eradication of disease of any 
kind in any species of live stock. 

The horse is still a necessity in many lines of commercial trade, and on the aver- 
age New England farm he is still the economic power. He and his near relative, 
the mule, are indispensable in military operations, and as a means of healthful 
recreation and pleasure the horse is in much greater demand than at any time for 
many years. Note his continuing importance as a drawing card at all animal 
expositions where the different types, draft, coach, saddle or speed, still receive 
genuine attention of interest. 



P. D. 98 11 

Another and one of the most important uses of the horse to-day and in which 
he is well-nigh indispensable is in the manufacture of various biological prepara- 
tions, and this materially increases the demand for healthy horses for their manu- 
facture. Horses must therefore still be produced in considerable numbers and 
maintained free from contagious disease. 

There were 48 horses reported during the year as suspected of glanders, of which 
number 4 proved to be positive cases of the disease. Horses in any way associated 
with these positive cases and classified as "contacts" — 27 in number — were 
mallein tested, 2 positive cases being found, making a total number of 6 positive 
cases for the year. 

Of these six cases, 4 were condemned on clinical examination, and diagnoses in 
the remaining 2 cases were arrived at either by use of the ophthalmic mallein test 
or by laboratory examination of blood samples submitted to the complement- 
fixation test. 

Of the reported cases 1 died or was killed by owner, Q6 of the total of reported 
and contact cases were released from observation as not diseased, and 2 await 
final action. In Boston, formerly the storm center of glanders, no case has occurred 
this year. 

The laboratory work in this branch of the service is quite necessary and very 
important, and this year has consisted of the complement-fixation test of 90 
samples of blood taken from 64 horses, for the purpose of diagnosis. 

Ophthalmic mallein tests to the number of 73 have been applied to 62 horses 
owned in the State permanently, and 79 tests to 79 horses recently arrived from 
other States, a total of 152 tests to 141 animals. The results of these tests were 
9 positive, 143 negative. 

Under present regulations (Department Order No. 36) horses shipped to Massa- 
chusetts from New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Connecticut must be 
accompanied by a permit of the Director of Animal Industry. From these States 
there has been reported the arrival of 2,585 horses. Excepting those brought in 
illegally they have been mallein tested on arrival unless accompanied by an 
approved record of test, or shown to be horses of the better class which ordinarily 
do not become exposed to the disease. 

Many of the animals from these States are of the better class referred to, used 
for carriage work, breeding, racing or exhibition purposes, and many of them are 
brought to the State for the summer season only. These of the better class do 
not require special attention on our part, but second-hand horses, trafficked in 
and sent from the markets of one State to those of another for public sale, have 
been specially watched on account of their being considered more liable to be 
subjects of contagious disease. 

Miscellaneous Diseases 

Anthrax. — For the past two years no positive case of anthrax has been found. 
In some instances this disease has been suspected and so reported, but careful 
laboratory examination has in every instance proven the suspicions to be not well 
founded. 

While we have been very fortunate in recent years in our freedom from out- 
breaks of this disease, we are not unmindful of the great damage an outbreak may 
cause, and often before control measures can be set in motion. The course of the 
disease is generally very rapid, often ending in the death of the animal attacked 
before a diagnosis can be made, or even before centralized control authorities 
can be notified. Frequently the first incident to which attention is called is the 
finding of a dead animal in stable or pasture with no cause of death apparent and 
no history of any animal having shown symptoms of sickness of any kind. Be- 
fore the true nature of the trouble can be determined the exposure of many other 
animals may have taken place, some of which may succumb on account of the 
high virulence and rapid course generally prevailing in a sudden outbreak. 

Unless carcasses are promptly buried the infection may be carried in numberless 
ways to surrounding territory and a serious prevalence occur. 

The anthrax bacillus and its spore formations are extremely resistent to condi- 
tions which ordinarily destroy germ life, and remain potent for a long time — 
often for many years — living in the soil and ready to infect any susceptible crea- 



12 m P. D. 98 

ture which may come in contact with them. It therefore happens that places 
where it has existed at any time may remain infected and subsequent outbreaks 
may occur even after the lapse of years. Consequently, following a positive 
diagnosis of anthrax it becomes necessary to at once put in operation preventive 
measures against its future occurrence. Deep burial or burning of infected car- 
casses and material with which they have been in contact, disinfection of buildings, 
the burning over of surface ground where carcasses are buried or over which they 
may have been dragged, the protective inoculation of all exposed animals and 
those which afterwards are to be stabled or pastured on the same premises, and a 
thorough investigation as to possible sources of the original outbreak are the 
control measures which have generally been found to be effective, and to which 
our present favorable situation is undoubtedly due. 

On several farms which have been previously infected we take the precaution 
to annually treat all susceptible animals with anti-anthrax serum and spore vac- 
cine. An occasional death from the treatment occurs, but very infrequently, 
and the majority of the animals are given absolute protection against the infection. 

We have one horse barn in the central part of the State which has remained 
infected with anthrax for several years, in spite of as thorough application of dis- 
infectants as can be devised. This building is therefore permanently quarantined 
and no animals are allowed to occupy it except those previously immunized against 
the disease. 

The communicability of anthrax to the human subject is well recognized, more 
or less danger existing to those whose occupations require the handling of hides 
and wool which may have been taken from infected carcasses of cattle or sheep. 
The Division's work in control of this disease has therefore a public health relation 
of considerable importance. 

Preventive treatment was applied to 19 cattle this year. 

Blackleg. — This disease, otherwise designated as "symptomatic anthrax" is 
one to which much that has been said in our reference to anthrax will apply, espe- 
cially its sudden development, high mortality rate, resistant powers of its caus- 
ative organisms, and the precautions necessary to prevent its spread. It generally 
develops, however, only during the pasture season and affects only the young 
cattle. It is unusual to find a case in an animal over two and one-half or three 
years of age, adult animals for some reason not being susceptible except in very 
rare instances. 

Preventive treatment is also available and is completely successful in nearly all 
cases if applied before infection has taken place. This protection is considered 
to be effective for a period of one year at least. We have many farms in the State 
where blackleg has existed at one time or another, and we recommend that all the 
young cattle on these places be given the protective treatment, the best time for 
it being just before the cattle are turned out to pasture in the Spring. This service 
is furnished free and we find it quite generally availed of, especially in those 
sections where the disease has at any time prevailed. 

On the occurrence of an outbreak we advise as a precaution the immediate 
removal of all susceptible animals from the pasture in which the disease has devel- 
oped, and their treatment in prevention of the disease. 

During the year 855 animals have been given protective treatment on 111 farms 
located in 48 different towns. Six deaths have been reported in untreated ani- 
mals on farms located in 4 different towns. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, as to disposal of 
infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, are applicable following occurrence 
of this disease. 

Actinomycosis. — A few cases of this disease are recorded every year and are 
generally disposed of by slaughter without reimbursement to the owner. If a 
case is not serious we allow the owner to have it treated by a private veterinarian, 
and in some cases allow the animal to be held for fattening purposes, under quar- 
antine restrictions, to be released only for slaughter. 

There have been 12 cases reported this year, one each in nine different towns, 
and three in one town. Of these, 5 have been slaughtered, 3 have recovered and 
been released from quarantine, 2 proved to be cases of other diseases, and 2 are 
undergoing treatment under quarantine restrictions. 



P. D. 98 13 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This disease, of very great importance in 
some sections of the country, where large numbers of cattle are received through 
public stockyards, does not often occur in this State in the form which is reported 
from those sections. Our cases are of the acute, purely septicemic type, develop- 
ing very rapidly and causing sudden death. At its onset it resembles anthrax in 
many of its symptoms and some cases are reported as that disease, the diagnosis 
of hemorrhagic septicemia being arrived at only by laboratory examination of 
material taken from the carcasses. 

Ordinarily the spread of the disease can be prevented if we have early report of 
its outbreak, by immediate removal of contact animals to other premises and 
their treatment by preventive methods. The losses are generally confined to 
the animals first affected, deaths occurring so suddenly that diagnosis is not made, 
and treatment cannot be applied early enough to save them. Our efforts are 
therefore in many instances effective only in saving the other members of the 
herd which may have been exposed to the same infection. 

Our records show that outbreaks of this disease have occurred in seven towns 
this year, in which 7 deaths occurred. Preventive treatment was applied to 59 
head of cattle. 

Although the function of this Division is the control and eradication of such 
diseases of animals as are contagious or infectious, we naturally have many other 
disease conditions referred to us which are not in that category. 

Infestation by parasites whose sphere of activity or cycle of existence in whole 
or in part may be in intimate relation to the animal body, externally or internally, 
is a condition often seriously interfering with normal health. As such condition 
may be said to be a communicable one where certain kinds of these organisms are 
the ones involved, the Division is frequently called upon for advice as to the best 
methods of extermination. 

The prevalence of scabies or "mange" affecting horses, cattle or sheep is at 
times widespread, and when brought to our attention demands quarantine meas- 
ures. Much less prevalent than formerly, we have had a relatively small number 
of cases to contend with. Thorough application of remedies according to direc- 
tions furnished generally results in destruction of the parasites within a reasonable 
period and the infested animals are then released from quarantine. Unfortunately 
many cattle owners are not disposed to carry out the necessary treatment or to 
take proper precautions against a spread of the infestation from one animal to 
another, and in that way they lose much of the normal producing power of their 
animals. There have been 175 cases of mange in cattle reported this year on 13 
premises in 8 towns, and only 1 infested horse. 

The treatment of conditions due to internal parasites was never before given 
the attention by progressive livestock raisers which it now commands, and much 
valuable information of a scientific character is now being taken advantage of by 
veterinarians and livestock owners. Wonderful results are being obtained in the 
way of better growth of young animals and increased production by the mature 
ones, and larger revenue in consequence. 

Foot-and- Mouth Disease. — Massachusetts has been fortunate in escaping an 
invasion of foot-and-mouth disease this year. A serious prevalence of it has 
occurred in two States, and although these States — California and Texas — are 
at a great distance from us the many ways in which this contagion is carried and 
the great distance it sometimes travels made the livestock officials of many other 
States extremely anxious until the extermination of it was finally accomplished 
by the prompt and thorough work of Federal and local State officials in co-oper- 
ative action. The disease has actively raged in many foreign countries for some 
years, and the trade relations of many of them with the United States have been 
very intimate. The countries of Continental Europe, Great Britain and those 
of Central and South America have been struggling for a long time to eradicate 
foot-and-mouth disease without success, and an invasion of this country has there- 
fore been greatly feared. The National government and most State governments 
have on that account been fairly well prepared to cope witli the invasion should 
it take place. 

Unfortunately the disease existed in California for some little time, and had 
spread to many premises before it was diagnosed and called to official attention. 
However, the immediate rally of all Federal and State veterinary forces, thorough 



14 P. D. 98 

investigation of the extent of spread, application of strict quarantine measures, 
prompt killing and burial of all exposed animals followed by thorough disinfection 
of all infected premises, and supplemented by restriction of shipment of all material 
which could possibly act as carriers of the contagion finally won the fight, and at 
present writing it is believed that complete extermination has been accomplished 
and that the disease no longer exists in that State. 

On learning of the California outbreak Division officials immediately made in- 
vestigation as to any possible danger of its spread to Massachusetts. Within a 
few hours it was learned that several cargoes of alfalfa hay had left the infected 
port of San Francisco only shortly before the outbreak was officially determined 
to be foot-and-mouth disease. Six of these cargoes were consigned in whole or 
in part to the port of Boston via the Panama Canal. This seemed to constitute 
a real danger of invasion of this State, and as other cargoes were consigned to New 
York, Philadelphia and Baltimore it was recognized that the bringing of foot- 
and-mouth disease from the Pacific to the Atlantic Seaboard was perhaps immi- 
nent and if occurring would certainly be a great calamity to the livestock interests 
of all eastern States at least. Consequently, all arriving cargoes were held in 
quarantine by Federal authority until the place of origin of the hay could be 
located. It finally transpired that with one exception the six cargoes consigned 
to the port of Boston had originated outside of California in territory free of sus- 
picion. The origin of one cargo, however, could not be satisfactorily determined, 
and it was deemed unsafe to allow this hay to be released for delivery to Massa- 
chusetts farms. Agreement of the Federal government to reimburse the consignee 
for one-half the value of the hay was sought and obtained providing the Com- 
monwealth would make an equal reimbursement. Appeal to the Governor and 
Council for funds was successful and the whole cargo of 695 bales (76 tons) of 
alfalfa was immediately destroyed by burning. 

Its appraised market value plus the expense of destruction amounted to 
$2,823.16, reimbursement for which was shared equally by the United States 
Government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. If by this prompt action 
an invasion of foot-and-mouth disease was prevented the money was well expended. 

Subsequent to the California outbreak another occurred in the State of Texas. 
This outbreak was quickly recognized, however, and the same forceful measures 
immediately instituted by Federal and State officials, resulting in its quick exter- 
mination without extensive spread. The source of this outbreak was found to be 
the importation of breeding cattle from a section of South America supposed to be 
infected. No connection with the California outbreak was found on extensive 
investigation in that direction. 

In California the disease first appeared among swine, which species are quite as 
susceptible to it as are bovine animals. This fact points to the necessity of expert 
diagnosis in any condition of swine showing symptoms in any way suggesting 
this disease. 

A few reports have been received this year calling attention to cases in which 
foot-and-mouth disease was suspected. Investigation, however, removed the 
suspicions in every case. 

We ask for prompt reports of suspected cases in order that true conditions may 
be at once determined. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. — This disease is a specific infection existing in 
practically every section of the country, and for many years has been the cause 
of much anxiety on the part of cattle owners and livestock officials on account of 
the great losses in breeding efficiency and a consequent diminution in the amount 
of dairy products which animals may be expected to yield under normal conditions 
of health. 

For many years its cause, means of dissemination, and possible methods of 
control have been subjects of study by the most eminent scientific investigators 
in veterinary medicine, and while as yet there is not entire agreement on many 
phases of the subject, yet the wide discussions of them have brought forth the 
great importance of many correlating pathological conditions formerly ignored 
and not considered to be related to the phenomenon of premature birth or to that 
of true abortion. 

The problem of control does not seem at present to be one for the application 
of regulatory methods by livestock officials. It is rather to be solved in individual 



P. D. 98 15 

herds by private veterinarians who, in addition to well known hygienic measures 
of value, have at hand the evidence of many as to the practicability of immuniza- 
tion of animals by the use of biological preparations. 

One State (Georgia) is making the experiment of prohibiting the shipment to 
that State of animals affected with abortion disease. The difficulties attending 
the enforcement of regulations to accomplish control must be many, if all interests 
are to be considered with fairness. The result of Georgia's departure in a new 
direction for the protection of its cattle interests by interstate regulation will be 
awaited with much interest by this Division. 

We render service in the way of obtaining laboratory diagnosis as to the pres- 
ence of the bacillus abortus in animals. There have been received this year 150 
samples of blood for this diagnosis. They were taken from animals on 10 different 
farms. Of these samples, 62 were diagnosed as positive, these 62 coming from 7 
different farms. 

Contagious Diseases of Poultry. — In previous reports no reference has been 
made to the several diseases of a contagious nature which affect poultry. In 
many instances they are the cause of severe losses and in emergencies of this kind 
poultrymen have frequently sought advice at the Agricultural College. Their 
departments of veterinary science and of poultry husbandry in connection with 
the extension service and by means of county agents and farm bureau officials, 
have done a large amount of work in the way of diagnoses, advice and suggestion, 
which has been of great relief in many trying situations. 

We note this year a greatly increased interest on the part of veterinarians in 
the subject of poultry diseases, and especially those of a contagious nature. Fitted 
as they are by technical training and experience to intelligently deal with diseased 
conditions affecting animal life, their developing interest in this field of veterinary 
practice will undoubtedly result in the prevention and control of contagious 
disease which now decimates many flocks. 

The stimulation of this interest in the subject of poultry diseases was primarily 
due to the matter being taken up in conference between officials of the Department 
of Veterinary Science and Pathology of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
the Director of Extension Service, the Massachusetts Veterinary Association and 
the Director of Animal Industry. Several conferences were held, and a series of 
lectures on Avian pathology was finally arranged under the auspices of the above 
mentioned officials and institutions. Great credit is due the several individuals 
who arranged for these lectures by prominent men connected with the College and 
Extension Service and others from outside the State — all prominent in their line 
of work. Intense interest was developed and shown by the attendance of some 
fifty veterinarians at the lectures. 

We believe that eventually a co-operative service by all agencies will be estab- 
lished of great value to the poultry industry, and with relief in many instances 
where none has hitherto been available. 

The Division will order quarantine restrictions in all reported cases Avhere they 
seem to be indicated. 

Other Infectious Diseases. — The finding of tuberculosis in swine at time of 
slaughter often means the presence of that disease in cattle on the same premises. 
Inspectors of slaughtering occasionally bring to our attention cases of swine tuber- 
culosis, and we immediately examine all members of the herd of cattle for evidence 
of the disease. Only two cases have been reported this year from two different 
towns, but in our opinion many inspectors neglect their duty in this direction. 

Among rare cases of infectious disease reported are two of nodular disease in 
sheep and one of adeno-carcinoma in a cow. 

Laboratory Service 

A very important auxiliary to the work of this Division is the laboratory service 
rendered by the bacteriological laboratory of the Department of Public Health. 
Positive diagnosis of disease depends in many instances on the result of laboratory 
examination, and there are many cases also in which laboratory confirmation of a 
clinical diagnosis made in the field is very desirable. 

In the control of rabies it is absolutely necessary in a great majority of the cases 
to have laboratory examination made of the brain of the animal suspected of the 



16 P. D. 98 

disease, or of the one known to have been exposed to it, but which exhibits no 
clinical symptoms. This procedure is especially important if persons have been 
bitten by the suspected or exposed animals. 

During the year the brains of 282 dogs, 8 cats and 2 cows have been examined 
in the laboratory for diagnosis as to the presence of rabies infection. This number 
is a reduction from last year of 125 examinations, which reduction is concurrent 
with a lowering prevalence of the disease this year. 

In the control of glanders the laboratory examination of samples of blood taken 
from horses suspected of or exposed to this disease is found necessary. Comple- 
ment-fixation tests of 90 blood samples have been made this year. 

In addition to the above, 20 specimens have been examined taken from animals 
suspected of the following diseases: anthrax, 1: tuberculosis, 6: actinomycosis, 5: 
nodular disease, 2: foot-and-mouth, 1: hemorrhagic septicemia, 5. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises 

Under the provisions of section 19, chapter 129 of the General Laws, an order 
was issued by the Director on January 15, 1924, to every inspector of animals in 
the cities and towns of the Commonwealth calling for an inspection of all cattle, 
sheep and swine and of the premises where kept. 

This order called for "the completion of the inspection by March 1, and for a 
report of the same to be promptly forwarded to the Division's office. The inspec- 
tors' reports came forward in most instances in good season and were duly exam- 
ined and tabulated in minute detail. 

These reports first of all constitute a "census" of the cattle, sheep and swine on 
the 29,519 farms or premises in the State where these species of animals are kept. 
From these reports the following interesting facts are gathered: — 

The number of cattle of all kinds has decreased from the 1923 record of 232,090 
to 219,042 — a decrease of 13,048 head which is approximately five and two-thirds 
per cent. In two years the decrease has been 18,144 head, which might cause some 
concern were it shown that the number of cows used for dairying had decreased 
in the same ratio. 

The decrease in dairy cows, however, since the annual inspection of 1923 was 
made has been 5,784, but their present number — 162,577 — is still somewhat 
above the average computed from the records of a long period of years. It is to 
be regretted, however, that our number of dairy animals has not more nearly 
kept pace with a rapidly increasing population. 

The number of swine recorded on the farms of the State at the time of the latest 
annual inspection shows that the gradual yearly decrease in numbers which has 
been shown during the past five years has not continued, but that according to 
inspectors' reports a total increase of about 700 head over last year's number 
has been found. 

The number reported by local inspectors of animals in the Spring months of this 
year is 63,465, which is far below normal, but until market conditions improve to 
a considerable degree the raising of this species as an industry will undoubtedly 
remain at a low development. 

The number of sheep found on the farms of the State still declines though at a 
much less rapid rate than formerly. Last year 11,633 were recorded by inspectors 
of animals, which number declined to 10,706 this year, a decrease of 927. 

Referring to the service of local inspectors of animals in their annual examina- 
tion of all cattle, sheep and swine, and the premises on which they are kept, it 
should be said that in the great majority of towns' and cities the work has been 
thoroughly and faithfully attended to. It has happened that in a few towns the 
work has not been of a character to be commended and reports of the inspection 
have been very much delayed, no report being received this year from one town. 
It will probably be necessary, therefore, for the Director to exercise the coming 
year his prerogative of disapproval of the renomination of such inspectors as have 
not rendered satisfactory service. 

Prompt and faithful service by a capable inspector of animals is of great pro- 
tective value to the livestock industry of his community, and is a public health 
auxiliary of great importance. We find that in some communities this service is 
not compensated for to anywhere near its value, and in many places poor remun- 



P. D. 98 17 

eration of this official operates to lower the standard which we would like to have 
maintained. 

In accordance with our annual custom, meetings of local town and city inspectors 
were called in November for conference with Division officials. 

The meetings were held in Greenfield, Pittsfield, Springfield, Worcester and 
Boston, and a fairly large number of inspectors attended. Matters of mutual 
interest to the local inspectors and the office of the Division were discussed, with 
satisfactory results in the way of clearing up many points of the service not well 
understood by the local inspectors. Bovine tuberculosis, its eradication by 
physical examination and by the application of the tuberculin test, was the prin- 
cipal subject of discussion — as usual — but the service of the inspector in the 
control of rabies was also one of the prominent subjects of interest. 

District veterinarians have made 403 visits to premises where unsanitary con- 
ditions were reported by local inspectors, and which they had failed to induce 
owners to correct. 

Reports of Rendering Companies 

Section 154 of chapter 111 of the General Laws requires rendering companies 
to report to this Division every animal received by them which is found to be 
infected with a contagious disease, and the information thus furnished is of value 
in bringing to the attention of the Division occasional cases of these diseases which 
otherwise would not be known. 

Fourteen reports covering 16 cases of contagious diseases were received from 
rendering companies, 3 of which had not been otherwise recorded. 



Financial Statement 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 126, Acts of 1924, 
Expended during the year for the salary of the Director 

Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, 

chapter 126, Acts of 1924 . 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Personal services of clerks and stenographers . . $8,996 05 

Extra clerical and stenographic service .... 23 30 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



$9,019 35 
280 65 



Appropriation for services, other than personal, includin 
the annual report, traveling expenses of the Director 
supplies and equipment, chapter 126, Acts of 1924 
Expended during the year for the following purposes: 

Books and maps . 

Express and messenger service 

Postage .... 

Printing report 

Other printing 

Telephone and telegrams . 

Stationery and office supplies 

Expenses of the Director . 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 
agents engaged in the work of extermination of 
contagious diseases among domestic animals, chap- 
ter 126, Acts of 1924 

Brought forward from 1923 appropriation 

Total amount appropriated 



$3,500 00 
$3,500 00 

$9,300 00 





$9,300 00 


ng printing 




% and office 




. 


$4,700 00 


$88 41 




361 78 




602 43 




69 99 




693 68 




620 01 




912 39 




180 35 




$3,529 04 




1,170 96 






$4,700 00 




$43,180 00 




20 00 






$43,200 00 



Expended during the year for the following purposes: — 



Services of regular agents 
Services of per diem agents 
Labor hired .... 

Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



$32,935 00 

5,938 00 

104 00 

$38,977 00 
4,223 00 



Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterina- 
rians and agents, chapter 126, Acts of 1924 . . $18,000 00 
Brought forward from 1923 appropriation ... 29 00 
Transferred from Appropriation for Extraordinary Ex- 
penses 276 25 



Total amount appropriated 

Expended during the year for the following purposes 
Traveling expenses of regular agents . . . . 
Traveling expenses of per diem agents .... 



$15,984 
2,320 



65 

60 



Total expenditure 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle and horses 
killed during the present and previous years, travel, when 
allowed, of inspectors of animals, incidental expenses of killing 
and burial, quarantine and emergency services, and for labora- 
tory and veterinary supplies and equipment, chapter 126, Acts 
of 1924 .... 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

34 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 
tuberculosis in 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, paid 
for in 1924 

6 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 

Supplies for veterinary inspectors 

Laundry 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants . 

Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc. 

Ear- tags, punches, chains, etc 

Expenses of killing and burial .... 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals 

Quarantine expenses 

Rent of halls for inspectors' meetings 

Sundries 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



$958 50 

300 00 

207 31 

363 77 

210 26 

201 17 

2,708 55 

180 00 

607 67 

41 00 

29 50 

48 00 

$5,855 73 

2,544 27 



Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of certain 
cattle killed in accordance with agreements made 
under authority of chapter 353, Acts of 1922 and 
chapter 304, Acts of 1924 

Brought forward from 1923 appropriation 

Transferred from Appropriation for Extraordinary Ex- 
penses . . . . ... 



$100,000 00 
44,275 46 

15,117 75 



$43,200 00 



$18,305 25 



$18,305 25 



$8,400 00 



Total amount appropriated 

Expended during the year for the following : — 
6,730 head of cattle killed in 1923 and 1924 (chapter 

353, Acts of 1922) $158,383 21 

42 head of cattle killed (chapter 304, Acts of 1924) . 1,010 00 



$159,393 21 



Total expenditure 



$159,393 21 



P. D. 98 m 19 
Appropriated, under the Appropriation for Extraordinary Expenses 
to pay one-half the cost of the destruction of hay shipped from 
the quarantined "foot-and-mouth disease" territory of Cali- 
fornia into Massachusetts $1,500 00 

Total expenditure $1,411 58 

Unexpended balance 88 42 

$1,500 00 



The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle for the year is 
$24.52. 

One hundred and sixty-nine claims for reimbursement for cattle condemned 
and killed as physical cases of tuberculosis during the year remain unsettled, 
these claims amounting to $4,225. 

One hundred and six unpaid claims covering 739 cattle, to which provisions of 
chapter 353, Acts of 1922, apply, remain unpaid, amounting to $22,297.74. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of hides and carcasses of 
condemned animals $7.22. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, Director. 



APPENDIX 

The following graphs show the work of the Division of Animal Industry in 
control of the principal contagious diseases of animals for a period of years. 



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P. D. 98 




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P. D. 98 



23 




Ill 



Public Document 



No. 98 



tEfje Commontoealtt) of jKasSadjusetts 



ANNUAL REPORT 



DIRECTOR OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY 



Year ending November 30, 1925 



Department of Conservation 




Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
650-2-'26. Order No. 4307 



Atrvi 



Wfyt Commontoealtf) of jUlaggacf)u£eUg 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 

Division of Animal Industry, 
Boston, November 30, 1925. 
To the Commissioner of Conservation. 

I have the honor to present the following report of the work of this Division 
for the year ending November 30, 1925. 

• The Division of Animal Industry has for its duty under the law the "Control and 
Eradication of Contagious Diseases of Animals." 

Measures in prevention -of contagious disease should however receive first con- 
sideration as were such 100% successful, control and eradication measures would not 
be called for. 

While such an ideal situation can not be foreseen in the near future veterinary 
science recognizes that its outstanding progress at the present day is in that direc- 
tion along with the other branches of medical science and at quite as rapid a pace. 

The Division of Animal Industry therefore attempts first of all to prevent out- 
breaks of contagious disease among our livestock, and in that way assist in main- 
taining them in a condition of health. Such condition means that they are a source 
of revenue to their owners and at the same time there results a true conservation of 
that portion of the public food supply which is derived from their products while 
living and from their carcasses after slaughter. 

The quantity, quality and nutritive value of this food is also found to be in direct 
ratio to the health of the animals which have produced it. 

Large quantities and standard quality of the products of bovine animals form 
the basis of successful dairying, and for good volume and high quality healthy 
animals are a first necessity. Neither propagation in sufficient numbers nor satis- 
factory development to maturity or to the point where their products become a 
source of revenue can be expected from animals affected with any form of contagious 
disease. 

In addition to the importance of healthy animals as a source of food the impor- 
tance of the relation of animal disease to the public health should be referred to. 
Animal disease is sometimes found to be the source of contagion affecting the 
human subject, — tuberculosis, glanders, rabies, anthrax and many other bacterial 
diseases of animals are readily communicated to man and while they are fortunately 
of comparatively rare occurrence in man their high mortality rate calls attention 
to the importance of controlling these maladies at their most common source and 
if possible of eradicating them from the animal kingdom. 

The most important work of the Division during the year has been the tuberculin 
testing of cattle at the request of their owners under the provisions of Chapter 353, 
Acts of 1922. The number of tests applied has largely increased due in part to a 
gradual growth of public opinion in favor of the work and in part to the increasing 
number of local health boards which have put into effect regulations calling for the 
tuberculin testing of all cattle whose products enter the local milk supply in a raw 
state. The progressive cattle owner who desires to maintain a healthy herd recog- 
nizes the present opportunity the Commonwealth offers him to eradicate tubercu- 
losis under favorable conditions, and the unthinking milk producer who is influenced 
only by health regulations finds his business jeopardized unless he can show that 
his herd of cattle is under official supervision. A large proportion of the increase 
in our work of testing this year has been in herds of the latter class, and as additional 
municipalities put similar rules into effect the volume of our tuberculin testing will 
proportionately increase. We now have on file a large number of requests for this 
service which are being attended to as rapidly as our force of veterinarians can make 
possible, and if sufficient appropriations are provided by the incoming legislature 
for travel expense and for the payment of indemnities for cattle which react to the 
tuberculin test we expect our service to be in greater demand than at any time 
since the work was started. 

The prevalence of rabies is at all times a condition which calls for prompt atten- 



P. D. 98 3 

tion on the part of this Division. Although somewhat reduced from the record of 
recent years it is still a situation of dire importance calling for strict regulatory 
measures. The lax enforcement of the dog laws and the lack of co-operation on 
the part of the public in ordinary preventive measures are often the cause of serious 
outbreaks of the disease, or make their control a much more serious problem. 

The prevention of contagious diseases of swine constitutes quite an important 
part of the work of the Division, and has increased largely during the year just 
closed. While our recommendations to swine owners are for them to call for our 
service before sickness appears in their herds so that the animals may be given the 
present day successful immunization against disease, nevertheless it often occurs 
that they wait until too late for preventive treatment to be successful. 

Hog Cholera, Hemorrhagic Septicemia and various mixed infections are the 
contagious diseases prevalent in this species and for the control of which our service 
is rendered. 

The regular continuous duties of inspection of horses, cattle, sheep and swine 
and of the sanitary conditions under which they are kept, execution of measures 
in prevention, cure or control of contagious diseases among all the several species of 
domestic animals, and the condemnation and slaughter when necessary of such as 
are affected with certain forms of such diseases, followed by supervision of the 
burial or other disposal of their carcasses, have been attended to promptly and in 
accordance with the methods found by many years' experience to be most effective. 

The enforcement of regulations applying to the transportation of animals from 
other states to Massachusetts is another important duty of this Division, as by 
these methods we make sure that no prevalence of contagious disease shall be caused 
by the entry of infected animals. Mallein testing of horses from certain states 
in which glanders has extensively prevailed, and tuberculin testing of dairy or 
breeding cattle shipped from other states and not accompanied by satisfactory 
records of tuberculin test, are continuous activities calling for prompt determina- 
tion of actual health conditions at time of entry. Although Federal regulations 
now require that all cattle of whatever age shipped from one state to another for 
any purpose except immediate slaughter shall have passed a tuberculin test applied 
by an approved veterinarian before the shipment takes place, and we ordinarily 
depend on this regulation being complied with by cattle shippers, yet we find that 
many cases of violation occur either intentionally or through ignorance of the 
existence of any regulatory measures of the United States government applying to 
this class of interstate commerce. In such instances official action becomes imme- 
diately necessary in protection of the livestock interests of the state, and all animals 
involved are immediately inspected and tuberculin tested. Failure to pass inspec- 
tion and test requires condemnation and killing, without indemnity to owner unless 
post-mortem examination discloses no evidence of disease. 

Following is a gross summary of the Division's work for the year ending Novem- 
ber 30, 1925:— 

GENERAL SUMMARY 

Cattle 

7,696 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by inspectors. 
451 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians at 
Brighton stockyards. 
41,288 tuberculin tests of Massachusetts cattle were made by Federal and State 
veterinarians in co-operation. 
1,561 interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Division veterinarians. 
1 1 ,725 tested interstate cattle were examined at Brighton and their test records 

viseed. 
8,571 tested interstate cattle were inspected and identified at other points. 
763 animals on 86 farms in 39 towns were given preventive treatment against 

blackleg. 
23 animals were given preventive treatment against anthrax. 
148 animals were given preventive treatment against hemorrhagic septicemia. 
188 visits to unsanitary premises were made by district veterinarians. 



4 ' P. D. 98 

Horses 

121 tests for glanders were made by Division veterinarians. 
1,266 interstate horses were examined by inspectors. 

4 tests of whole -stables were made by Division veterinarians. 

Dogs 
1,642 cases of possible rabies in animals were investigated. 

Swine 

84,976 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hog cholera. 

24,990 head of swine were treated in prevention or cure of hemorrhagic septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases 
189 cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Division veterinarians. 

Bovine Tuberculosis 

The Division has continued the past year the policies formulated under the pro- 
visions of Chapter 353, Acts of 1922, referring to the tuberculin testing of cattle 
under State supervision and Chapter 304, Acts of 1924, referring to the payment 
for cattle condemned and killed on account of physical symptoms of tuberculosis. 
The Board of Health regulations of a number of cities and towns requiring that raw 
milk offered for sale in such cities and towns must come from cattle which have 
been given an official tuberculin test have resulted in a considerable increase in 
the number of requests received by this Division for application of the tuberculin 
test, many owners of herds having been given the choice of submitting their herds 
to test, pasteurizing the milk or discontinuing in the dairy business. The increased 
demand for tuberculin tested cattle to replace reacting cattle in such herds has 
resulted in requests for tests from many persons dealing in cattle. These facts 
have caused a considerable increase in the percentage of cattle which have reacted 
to the first or original test applied under our supervision. 

Co-operation under the so-called " Accredited Tuberculosis-free Herd" plan by 
the Federal Bureau of Animal Industry continues to prove an important factor in 
inducing owners of cattle to submit their herds for test, as the additional amount 
paid by the Federal government is an aid in lessening the monetary loss to the 
owner of reacting cattle. The Federal allotment became exhausted early in the 
year, however, which resulted in a natural slowing up in the number of requests for 
test received, the effects of which were felt until a new allotment was made avail- 
able by the Federal government at the beginning of their fiscal year, July 1st. 

An increase in the number of cattle condemned on physical symptoms from 338 
in the year ending November 30, 1924, to 597 in the year ending November 30, 
1925, is undoubtedly due to the fact that it has become more generally known that' 
the law allowing reimbursement for such animals, which law was repealed in 1922, 
had been re-enacted and is now in effect. In cases of this kind the veterinarian 
under whose direction the animal is condemned is required to make a careful phys- 
ical examination of all cattle on the premises. The premises must then be satis- 
factorily disinfected before payment is made by the Commonwealth. Three 
months from date of condemnation, the Inspector of Animals of the town in which 
the case occurred is requested to make a careful physical examination of such cattle 
as may then be on the premises. These precautionary measures often result in 
locating and condemning other infected animals and through disinfection limiting 
the spread of the contagion. 

The testing of cattle under the provisions of Chapter 353, Acts of 1922, is in 
accordance with said chapter, done only on request of the cattle owner and only 
under agreement with him that he will comply with the rules and regulations made 
to govern such testing, which rules and regulations refer to the disposition of re- 
acting cattle, the cleansing and disinfection of the premises and the class of animals 
which may be added to the herd. 

Following is the year's record of tuberculin tests: — 



P.D. 98 5 

Total number of herds tested: 2,093. 

Total number of cattle tested: 41,288 (purebreds 14,750, grades 26,538): passed 
the test, 33,024: reacted, 8,264: percentage of reactions: 20. 

First test, 882 herds, 13,792 cattle: passed, 7,508: reacted, 6,284: percentage of 
reactions: 45.5. 

Second test, 505 herds, 6,765 cattle: passed, 5,878: reacted, 887: percentage of 
reactions: 13.1. 

Third test, 530 herds, 14,919 cattle: passed, 13,895: reacted, 1,024: percentage 
of reactions: 6.8. 

Tests made of 176 herds comprising 5,812 cattle previously accredited and due 
for retest, showed only 69 reactors, i.e., one and seventeen hundredths per cent. 

The tabulation above shows an increase in the testing over that of the year 
ending November 30, 1924, of 710 herd tests, 11,114 animals tested and 2,639 
reactions to the test, and an increase of percentage of reactions from 31 per cent 
found to the first test in 1923 to 40.2 per cent in 1924, and 45.5 per cent this year, 
the cause of this increase in reactions being due to the character of the herds sub- 
mitted as stated previously. The increase in the percentage of reactions found to 
the second, third and subsequent tests is believed to be due to lack of care by the 
owner in the selection of cattle purchased to replace reactors. 

The percentage of reacting cattle is found in purebreds to be 8.86 per cent while 
in grades it is 22.44 per cent, due undoubtedly to the fact that owing to the higher 
cost of purebred animals, more care has been taken in selecting and purchasing 
them. 

On November 30th there were on our records 376 herds containing 8,105 head of 
cattle the owners of which had received "accredited" herd certificates issued by the 
Federal government. In addition to this figure there were 527 herds containing 
5,777 head of cattle which had passed one test without a reaction and 187 herds 
containing 1,002 head of cattle which had passed two clean tests making a total of 
1,090 herds in which no reacting cattle were' found at last test, which herds con- 
tained 14,884 head of cattle. Our records indicate that on this date there are under 
supervision 1,716 herds, which is 6 per cent of the herds of cattle in the State and 
26,646 head of cattle, or 13 per cent of the cattle in the State. 



Interstate Cattle 

In order that the health status of all bovine animals brought into Massachusetts 
from other States may be known to the Division and become a matter of record in 
its office, it is required (Department Order No. 35) that such animals shall be ac- 
companied by a permit issued by the Director. This regulation is very generally 
observed with the result that the Division has information of interstate shipments 
and their destination, and calls upon the local inspectors for reports of arrival and 
for identification. An occasional violation of the regulation occurs, sometimes due 
to misinformation and in a few instances to wilful non-observance of all regulatory 
action by officials. Investigation in all cases of violation is immediately instigated. 

Federal regulations applying to the shipment of dairy or breeding cattle from one 
State to another now require that all animals of that class of whatever age shall 
have passed a recent tuberculin test before the shipment takes place, an exception 
to this regulation being that animals from "accredited tuberculosis-free" herds may 
be shipped interstate without additional test. 

These Federal regulations relieve us to a large extent of the former necessity of 
applying the tuberculin test to the majority of cattle arriving within the State, and 
consequently this branch of our work has been very much diminished since this 
Federal regulation became operative. 

The legislature of 1924 passed a new law applying to cattle shipped to Massa- 
chusetts to be used for dairy purposes. Whereas, formerly they could be shipped 
without test to premises designated by the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture as "public stockyards" and there quarantined and tuberculin tested, the new 
Massachusetts law requires that they shall be inspected before shipment to this 
State, and passed as healthy by either a Federal or State veterinarian. The word 
"inspected" in this law is interpreted to mean tuberculin tested. 



6 V P. D. 98 

Our inspectors stationed at the Brighton stockyards which premises are classified 
by the Federal Department of Agriculture as "public stockyards" are thus relieved 
of a certain amount of tuberculin testing. It is necessary, however, to vise the 
records accompanying these cattle and identify the animals as the ones recorded; 
so we are not relieved to any great extent of the inspection service maintained for 
many years at this point. We still find it advisable to occasionally apply check 
tests on cattle shipped as "passed the test" to make sure that the efficiency of the 
testing is up to the proper standard and that dishonesty or misrepresentation has 
not been practiced. 

A small number of cattle arrive each week unaccompanied by satisfactory records 
of tuberculin test and these are subjected to a test or retest and then released for 
sale or slaughter in accordance with the results obtained. 

During the year 13,247 interstate dairy cattle have been received at Brighton, 
either shipped thereto direct or through the receiving station at Somerville where 
the animals are under the same quarantine regulations as at the main yards at 
Brighton. Of these 3,973 were from New Hampshire, 6,084 from Maine, 2,840 
from Vermont, 319 (including 4 held over from 1924) from New York, 2 from Rhode 
Island, 24 from Ohio and 9 from Connecticut. Of the total number received 11,725 
were released for sale on approved records of tuberculin test, and 1,522 were held 
for test by State and Federal officials, the reactors being slaughtered. 

At other points in the State there have been received 8,571 dairy or breeding 
cattle from other States, all tuberculin tested either before shipment or imme- 
diately after arrival in cases where interstate regulations have not been complied 
with through ignorance or wilful intent. 

The total number of dairy or breeding cattle received from other States at all 
points in Massachusetts shows a grand total of 21,818 — an increase of 4,688 over 
1924. 

Contagious Diseases of Swine 

Hog Cholera. — The wisdom of directing attention to prevention of contagious 
diseases of live stock rather than cure is best shown by the results obtained in the 
treatment of swine in their protection against the ravages of hog cholera. Thou- 
sands of animals are saved each year by the -so-called simultaneous treatment, the 
efficiency of which has long been established and is in general use wherever swine 
raising is an industry of importance. Before the development by the Federal 
Bureau of Animal Industry of a successful preventive of this disease the production 
of pork in large quantities was often unprofitable because of the visitation of hog 
cholera with its high mortality rate — in many instances when an outbreak occurred 
its prevalence ceased only when no animals survived. 

The herds fed on garbage were particularly subject to these outbreaks because 
of the facility with which infection was brought to them by garbage material. 
Now, however, it is readily possible to immunize swine against this danger and the 
utilization of garbage — a cheap food containing all the elements of nutrition — is 
safe and has developed into an industry of no small proportions — to say nothing 
of the advantage it offers as a solution of the problem which confronts many com- 
munities regarding the disposal of household food waste. 

There can be no doubt of the great economic value of the work of the Division 
in the prevention of contagious diseases of swine. It is a work of real conservation 
of resources — when we are able to prevent the ravages of this one principal disease 
only (hog cholera) we are doing much to increase that portion of the food supply 
which is produced within the State and at the same time are helping to maintain 
an industry on a profitable basis. 

While it is contended by some that free service in the latter direction by agents 
of the Commonwealth is wrong in principle, yet from the viewpoint of the necessity 
of control of contagious diseases among animals, as a work of real conservation of 
material resources, it would seem to be justified. 

It may be, however, that having taken up this work some years ago when it was 
not commanding any attention from swine owners or veterinarians, having super- 
vised it by official control as deemed necessary at that time, having demonstrated 
the way it can be successfully accomplished, and finally having educated the swine 
owner as to its value to him in a business way, it is now relevant to discuss the 



P. D. 98 7 

question of the State no longer furnishing free service or of retiring altogether from 
the actual field work, and depending on private veterinarians to do it under State 
control or supervision. 

While hog cholera is the most disastrous of swine diseases and our work in its 
prevention is perhaps of more importance than in the treatment of other conta- 
gious diseases of that species, yet the occurrence of other infections in which our 
services are frequently sought is a matter of no small importance to the swine raiser. 

Being called to immunize a herd of swine against hog cholera we frequently find 
some other condition as the cause of trouble and which in some instances co-exists 
with cholera. 

The skill of a trained field veterinarian is often put to a severe test in differentiat- 
ing between two diseases somewhat alike in their exhibition of symptoms, and if 
multiple infections are found, to determine which of them is the primary cause, and 
then use his knowledge — gained only by experience — to map out a combination 
treatment which will be effective in reducing the mortalities. Our veterinarians, 
many of whom have been engaged in this branch of our work for several years, 
have become very expert as diagnosticians and are rendering service which seems 
to be effective in control of disease and at the same time very satisfactory to swine 
owners. There is no other work in our Division in which correct diagnosis, arrived 
at promptly, means more to successful outcome of treatment than in the control 
of contagious diseases of swine. 

During this year there have been 84,976 treatments applied to swine in the pre- 
vention or cure of hog cholera, an increase of 11,686 treatments over those applied 
in the previous year. The animals comprised 657 herds varying in size from one 
pig only to some exceeding 4,000 in number. These herds were located in 182 
cities and towns and required the making of 1,918 visits by one or more field veter- 
inarians. 

Attention is directed to a graph in the appendix to this report showing the number 
of treatments applied year by year since the work was begun, and showing also that 
the present year has been our busiest one in this direction. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Swine. — This disease commonly called "swine 
plague" commands considerable attention on the part of our field veterinarians, 
although its treatment by private veterinarians is not in any way restricted by 
department order as in cases of hog cholera. 

On the outbreak of any contagious disease in a herd of swine the owner always 
fears hog cholera and accordingly applies for the Division's service. It is in this 
way that our field veterinarians generally come in contact with cases of hemorrhagic 
septicemia, finding it prevailing as a separate infection or co-existent with hog 
cholera or other swine diseases. It ranks next in importance to hog cholera as a 
cause of death and demands the same careful observation when attempting positive 
diagnosis. 

Its treatment in prevention or cure has rapidly developed and this branch of our 
work the past year has been greatly increased. It may be said that owing to the 
further development of biological treatment of this infection results are now emi- 
nently satisfactory. 

Our records show that 24,990 treatments have been applied this year. 

Rabies 

One of the most important branches of the work carried on by the Division of 
Animal Industry is the control of rabies. 

We are glad to record that the decline from the high point of prevalence in 1922 
and 1923 has continued this year. We have had 22 per cent fewer cases than in 
1924 and the decline in the past two years amounts to 45 per cent. 

In 1922 the general prevalence of rabies in Massachusetts had gradually in- 
creased from the year 1918, progressively spreading from one community to another, 
sometimes disappearing from one section of the State only to be found breaking out 
in another, so that the total number of cases recorded in the State as a whole re- 
mained at a high point. In 1922, however, the disease seemed to have arrived at 
the peak of its prevalence; it remained nearly stationary during 1923, and as above 
stated has declined rapidly in 1924 and 1925. We confidently expect a still further 
improvement of the situation this coming year. 



8- P. D. 98 

As is well known the disease prevails mostly among dogs, but all species of domes- 
ticated animals are susceptible to it and may become infected under certain cir- 
cumstances of exposure. Each year our records show a relatively small number of 
cattle, horses, swine and cats which have received the infection. Undoubtedly 
many species of wild animals are from time to time subjects of the disease, which 
fact escapes notice except in very rare instances. They are probably a factor in 
the continuing existence of this infection as dogs frequently come in contact with 
them. 

The disease is readily transmissible to the human subject by the bite of an animal 
carrying the infection and therefore there exists an important public health phase 
of the problem of control and eradication. 

Close co-operation is sought by the Division with State and Municipal health v 
and police departments and with medical and veterinary practitioners who are 
brought into connection with positive cases of the disease or with persons or animals 
exposed thereto. Where such co-operation can be completely established, control 
of an outbreak of rabies in any community is a matter of a short time only. 

Unfortunately however it often happens that the complete enlistment of all these 
agencies fails, and the disease prevails for a more or less protracted period in 
consequence. 

If the dog laws now on the statute books were completely enforced in all sections 
of the State the prevalence of rabies could be brought down to an almost negligible 
point. Were there a general compliance even with the licensing law the number of 
dogs would be greatly reduced because stray, ownerless and unlicensed ones would 
be impounded and disposed of. 

Unfortunately however the license law is practically ignored in many towns and 
cities or is only spasmodically enforced when an outbreak of rabies appears. The 
infection has then been established and a certain number of cases generally follows. 

Selectmen, mayors and boards of aldermen have the authority to issue orders 
calling for the muzzling or restraining of the dogs in their municipalities whenever 
the same seems to be necessary. In the excitement attending a fresh outbreak of 
this disease, when public opinion is acutely alive to the dangers of the situation, 
such orders are deemed necessary and are at first generally well observed by the 
dog owners and well enforced by the police authorities. As soon, however, as the 
first excitement has subsided, we find that in many instances there is no observance 
of them by the public, no enforcement by the authorities, and conditions relax to 
the same level of non-attention as in case of the State laws regarding licensing. 

Referring to the rabies situation in general there seems to be some promise of 
relief in the effective results now being obtained by the preventive inoculation of 
dogs against the disease. By the use of the Pasteur .treatment it has been possible 
for some years to prevent development of the disease in persons who have been 
bitten by rabid animals, and the development of the preventive treatment for 
animals has now been brought to a degree of perfection where its results are com- 
parable with those of the Pasteur treatment of the human subject. 

Owners of dogs may now have their animals completely immunized against the 
disease so that even if exposed by the bite of a rabid animal development of the< 
disease seldom takes place. 

Dogs which have been exposed to a positive case of rabies are ordinarily quaran- 
tined for a period of 90 days, but if owners have them immunized we deem it safe 
to release them from quarantine when 21 days have elapsed following the comple- 
tion of the treatment if no symptoms of rabies have developed during that time. 

One town this year, through its Board of Health, provided free inoculation of all 
licensed dogs against rabies. We believe that if this plan were generally adopted 
and became country wide in its application, and were the license laws strictly en- 
forced at the same time, rabies would cease to be the menace it now is to all species 
of domesticated animals and through them to the general public. 

During the year ending November 30, 1925, 1,520 animals were reported to the 
Division for diagnosis, observation or quarantine on account of the prevalence of 
rabies, and 122 reported cases were brought forward from the year 1924. Of these 
1,642 animals, 242 dogs, 5 cattle, 1 cat and 1 hog proved to be positive cases. Diag- 
noses were made either by clinical symptoms, or laboratory examination of brains, 
supplemented in many instances by the inoculation of small animals. 

Comparing these statistics with our records of the year 1924 we find that there 



P. D. 98 9 

have been 77 fewer positive cases this year. This reduction in one year of approxi- 
mately 22 per cent and in two years of 45 per cent in the number of positive cases 
augurs well for a still further decline in prevalence in 1926. 

The Division received reports during the year of 970 persons who had been bitten 
by dogs, 11 persons who were bitten by cats and 1 bitten by a monkey. In all 
cases reported of persons bitten, the local inspector of animals of the town or city 
where the animal is owned or kept is ordered to make an examination of the animal, 
and, even if it appears to be healthy, to have it quarantined for a period of 14 days 
for observation. This is a measure directly in protection of the public health. If 
by any chance the biting animal is affected with rabies at the time the bite is in- 
flicted, unmistakable clinical symptoms of the disease will probably appear before 
the end of the quarantine period, and in such cases the bitten persons will have 
definite knowledge of that fact and will seek medical advice. If at the end of the 
14-day period animals which are quarantined on account of biting persons have not 
developed symptoms of rabies, they are released from quarantine. 

The majority of the animals which inflicted bites on 982 persons as above re- 
corded were released at the end of the quarantine period showing no symptoms of 
rabies. 

Of the 1,642 animals reported for observation 67 dogs and 1 cat were — as far 
as could be ascertained — ownerless, and the dogs unlicensed, and 16 of these 
ownerless dogs proved to be positive cases of rabies. 

Glanders 

The prevalence of this disease during the past year has remained at the same low 
plane recorded for the past seven years — only eight positive cases having been 
found — one each in the cities of Boston, Worcester, Springfield, Chicopee and 
Chelsea, two in the town of Bellingham, and one in Dracut. These widely sepa- 
rated locations of individual cases indicate that no common source of the disease 
is present and therefore that proper control measures in each location will probably 
keep its prevalence at the same low plane in the immediate future. 

We believe that the majority of the cases which we are now finding are of a 
latent character, as only three of the eight cases recorded this year showed symptoms 
of the acute form of the disease, the remaining cases being diagnosed by mallein 
tests or laboratory examination of blood samples. 

Latent cases may exist for a long time without the animals exhibiting symptoms 
which would be looked upon as suspicious, and in the meantime they might or 
might not become a source of contagion to others. Some of the post-mortem 
examinations made indicated the infection to be of long standing — possibly dating 
from the time when glanders was so very prevalent years ago in many sections. 

The mallein testing of all stable mates, and contact animals when a positive case 
has been found in recent years has undoubtedly disclosed many of these latent 
cases and that way has been a most potent factor in the record of extermination. 
However, glanders was so rampant for many years that there are probably yet to 
be found occasionally cases which have carried the infection for a long time and 
which will exhibit suspicious symptoms only when circumstances of age, environ- 
ment, work or lack of care furnish the influence which causes such symptoms to 
appear. 

The practical extermination of glanders has been due first of all to the use of 
modern methods of diagnosis, including in such the mallein testing of all horses 
exposed to the disease such as the stable mates of all positive cases; the closing of 
public watering troughs in towns and cities where cases have occurred has been 
another very potent factor in limiting the extension of local outbreaks; the decreas- 
ing number of horses now used for commercial purposes, and their better working 
conditions are also factors in the improving situation. The horse's work-day has 
been shortened and he has been largely relieved by the motor truck of the heart- 
breaking long hauls of heavy loads which formerly were his task. The efforts of 
various organizations having his welfare as their principal object have done much 
to educate his caretaker to an understanding of his needs and to a realization of his 
greater usefulness if well fed, comfortably stabled, and properly cared for. All of 
these are influences of value in the control and eradication of disease of any kind 
in any species of live stock. 



10- P. D. 98 

The horse is still a necessity in many lines of commercial trade, and on the average 
New England farm he is still the economic power. He and his near relative, the 
mule, are indispensable in military operations, and as means of healthful recreation 
and pleasure the horse is in much greater demand than at any time for many years. 
Note his continuing importance as a drawing card at all animal expositions where 
the different types, draft, coach, saddle or speed, still receive genuine attention of 
interest. 

Another and one of the most important uses of the horse today and in which he 
is well-nigh indispensable is in the manufacture of various biological preparations, 
and this materially increases the demand for healthy horses for their manufacture. 
Horses must therefore still be produced in considerable numbers and maintained 
free from contagious disease. 

There were 26 horses reported during the year as suspected of glanders, of which 
number 7 proved to be positive cases of the disease. Horses in any way associated 
with these positive cases and classified as "contacts" — 23 in number — were mallein 
tested, 1 positive case being found, making a total number of 8 positive cases for the 
year. 

Of these 8 cases, 3 were condemned on clinical examination, and diagnoses in the 
remaining 5 cases were arrived at either by use of the ophthalmic mallein test or by 
laboratory examination of blood samples submitted to the complement-fixation 
test. 

Forty- one of the total of reported and contact cases were released from observa- 
tion as not diseased. 

The laboratory work in this branch of the service is quite necessary and very 
important, and this year has consisted of the complement-fixation test of 40 samples 
of blood taken from 40 horses, for the purpose of diagnosis. 

Ophthalmic mallein tests to the number of 45 have been applied to 43 horses 
owned in the State permanently, and 36 tests to 35 horses recently arrived from 
other States, a total of 81 tests to 78 animals. The results of the e tests were 4 
positive, 77 negative. 

Under present regulations (Department Order No. 36) horses shipped to Massa- 
chusetts from New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Connecticut must be 
accompanied by a permit of the Director of Animal Industry. From these States 
there has been reported the arrival of 1,776 horses. Excepting those brought in 
illegally they have been mallein tested on arrival unless accompanied by an approved 
record of test, or shown to be horses of the better class, which ordinarily do not 
become exposed to the disease. 

Many of the animals from these States are of the better class referred to, used for 
carriage work, breeding, racing or exhibition purposes, and many of them are 
brought to the State for the summer season only. These of the better class do not 
require special attention on our part, but second-hand horses, trafficked in and sent 
from the markets of one State to those of another for public sale, have been specially 
watched on account of their being considered more liable to be subjects of conta- 
gious disease. 

A graph in the appendix to this report shows at a glance the decreasing prevalence 
of glanders for the past thirteen years and indicates that we may reasonably expect 
complete eradication of it in the near future. On account of its communicability 
to the human subject with fatal termination in all cases the work of its control and 
eradication in animals is quite important from a public health standpoint. 

Miscellaneous Diseases 

Anthrax. — Only one positive case of anthrax in animals has been reported this 
year, that occurring in Worcester County. The source of this outbreak was prob- 
ably the use for bedding of certain animal waste products from a foreign country 
where the disease exists more or less continuously. By prompt application of 
preventive inoculation to the exposed animals no additional deaths occurred. 

While we have been very fortunate in recent years in our freedom from outbreaks 
of this disease we are not unmindful of the great damage an outbreak may cause, 
and often before control measures can be set in motion. The course of the disease 
is generally very rapid, often ending in the death of the animal attacked before a 
diagnosis can be made, or even before centralized control authorities can be notified. 



P. D. 98 11 

Frequently the first incident to which attention is called is the finding of a dead 
animal in stable or pasture with no cause of death apparent and no history of any 
animal having shown symptoms of sickness of any kind. Before the true nature 
of the trouble can be determined the exposure of many other animals may have 
taken place, some of which may succumb on account of the high virulence and rapid 
course generally prevailing in a sudden outbreak. 

Unless carcasses are promptly buried the infection may be carried in numberless 
ways to surrounding territory and a serious prevalence occur. 

The anthrax bacillus and its spore formations are extremely resistant to condi- 
tions which ordinarily destroy germ life, and remain potent for a long time — often 
for many years — living in the soil and ready to infect any susceptible creature 
which may come in contact with- them. It therefore happens that places where it 
has existed at any time may remain infected and subsequent outbreaks may occur 
even after the lapse of years. Consequently, following a positive diagnosis of 
anthrax it becomes necessary to at once put in operation preventive measures 
against its future occurrence. Deep burial or burning of infected carcasses and 
material with which they have been in contact, disinfection of buildings, the burn- 
ing over of surface ground where carcasses are buried or over which they may have 
been dragged, the protective inoculation of all exposed animals and those which 
afterwards are to be stabled Or pastured on the same premises, and a thorough 
investigation as to possible sources of the original outbreak are the control measures 
which have generally been found to be effective, and to which our present favorable 
situation is undoubtedly due. 

On several farms which have been previously infected we take the precaution to 
annually treat all susceptible animals with anti-anthrax serum and spore vaccine. 
An occasional death from the treatment occurs, but very infrequently, and the 
majority of the animals are given absolute protection against the infection. 

We have one horse barn in the central part of the State which has remained 
infected with anthrax for several years, in spite of as thorough application of dis- 
infectants as can be devised. This building is therefore permanently quarantined 
and no animals are allowed to occupy it except those previously immunized against 
the disease. 

The communicability of anthrax to the human subject is well recognized, more 
or less danger existing to those whose occupations require the handling of hides and 
wool which may have been taken from infected carcasses of cattle or sheep. The 
Division's work in control of this disease has therefore a public health relation of 
considerable importance. 

Preventive treatment was applied to 23 cattle this year. 

Blackleg. — This disease, otherwise designated as "symptomatic anthrax," is one 
to which much that has been said in our reference to anthrax will apply, especially 
its sudden development, high mortality rate, resistant powers of its causative 
organisms, and the precautions necessary to prevent its spread. It generally de- 
velops, however, only during the pasture season and affects only the young cattle. 
It is unusual to find a case in an animal over two and one-half or three years of age, 
adult animals for some reason not being susceptible except in very rare instances. 

Preventive treatment is also available and is completely successful in nearly all 
cases if applied before infection has taken place. This protection is considered to 
be effective for a period of one year at least. We have many farms in the State 
where blackleg has existed at one time or another, and we recommend that all the 
young cattle on these places be given the protective treatment, the best time for it 
being just before the cattle are turned out to pasture in the Spring. This service 
is furnished free and we find it quite generally availed of, especially in those sections 
where the disease has at any time prevailed. 

On the occurrence of an outbreak we advise as a precaution the immediate re- 
moval of all susceptible animals from the pasture in which the disease has developed, 
and their treatment in prevention of the disease. 

During the year 763 animals have been given protective treatment on 86 farms 
located in 39 different towns. Four deaths have been reported in untreated 
animals on farms located in 2 different towns. 

The same general recommendations as in anthrax outbreaks, as to disposal of 
infected carcasses by burning or deep burial, are applicable following occurrence of 
this disease. 



12 P. D. 98 

Actinomycosis. — A few cases of this disease are recorded every year and are 
generally disposed of by slaughter without reimbursement to the owner. If a case 
is not serious we allow the owner to have it treated by a private veterinarian, and 
in some cases allow the animals to be held for fattening purposes, under quarantine 
restrictions, to be released only for slaughter. 

There have been 15 cases reported this year distributed in twelve different towns. 
Of these, 12 have been slaughtered, 1 has recovered and been released from quar- 
antine and 2 proved to be cases of other diseases. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This disease, although of great importance 
in some sections of the country, is not found to be prevalent in this State. The 
cases which do occur are usually of the septicemic type, which develops very rapidly, 
often resembling anthrax in many of its aspects. A diagnosis usually depends on 
laboratory examination of material taken from the carcasses of cattle in which 
sudden deaths occur and in which the character of the symptoms exhibited indicate 
contagion of some nature. 

It is found that the spread of this disease can be prevented by immediate removal 
of contact animals to other premises and their treatment by preventive methods. 
Our efforts are usually confined to saving other members of the herd in which the 
infection has been found, affected animals ordinarily dying before a diagnosis can 
be made. 

Our records show that outbreaks of this disease have occurred in 8 towns this 
year, in which 25 deaths occurred. Preventive treatment was applied to 148 
head of cattle. 

Mange. — Scabies or "mange" affecting horses, cattle or sheep, although less 
prevalent than in former years, demands quarantine measures when brought to our 
attention. Removal of affected animals, except for immediate slaughter, is for- 
bidden. By the use of proper remedies excellent results in the destruction of the 
parasites are often obtained, and when the infested animals are found to be cured 
the quarantine is lifted. There have been 98 cases of mange in cattle reported this 
year on 15 premises in 11 towns. 

Foot-and-Mouth Disease. — The prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in the 
States of California and Texas which occurred in the year 1924 was apparently 
exterminated. One new outbreak was reported in the State of Texas during the 
year 1925 and is thought to be eradicated. It is now believed, therefore, that the 
disease does not exist in the United States. All reports resembling in any manner 
foot-and-mouth disease are immediately investigated by this Division. 

Bovine Infectious Abortion. — This disease, which is found to occur in practically 
every section of the country, is at present given a great deal of study by investigators 
in veterinary science. 

No action has as yet been taken by this State relative to issuing regulatory 
measures to prevent the spread of this infection owing to the difficulties which 
would naturally attend the enforcement of such regulations. 

Laboratory service to aid in diagnosis as to the presence of bacillus abortus in 
animals is offered to veterinarians, cattle owners and other persons interested. 
There have been received this year 89 samples of blood and one specimen of mem- 
brane for this diagnosis. They were taken from animals on 7 different farms. Of 
these samples 33 were diagnosed as positive, these 33 coming from 6 different farms. 

Contagious Diseases of Poultry. — The quarantine measures adopted by this 
Division and by live-stock sanitary boards of other States have resulted in the 
apparent eradication of the fowl plague, an outbreak of which occurred in some sec- 
tions of this country during the previous year. Quarantine restrictions during the 
year have been imposed on all reported cases where such action seemed necessary. 

A special course in poultry diseases given under the auspices of the Department 
of Veterinary Science and Pathology of the Massachusetts Agricultural College at 
Amherst was largely attended by veterinarians of not only Massachusetts but of 
other neighboring States and also by the veterinarians connected with this Division. 

Tuberculosis in Swine. — Tuberculosis in swine found at time of slaughter is 
frequently brought to the attention of this Division and is often indicative of the 
presence of that disease in cattle on the same premises. 

Upon receipt of a report of this condition in swine steps are immediately taken 
to have all cattle on the premises examined for evidence of the disease. Seven 
cases have been reported this year from 4 different towns. 



P.D. 98 13 

Laboratory Service 

The bacteriological laboratory of the Department of Public Health rendeis im- 
portant service to this Division in the diagnoses of diseases which in many instances 
require laboratory examination. 

In the control of rabies it is found to be absolutely necessary to have laboratory 
examination made of the brains of suspected animals. This procedure is especially 
important in cases where persons have been bitten by the suspected animals. During 
the year the brains of 257 dogs, 13 cats, 3 cows and 1 hog have been examined in 
the laboratory for diagnosis as to the presence of rabies infection. 

In the control of glanders the laboratory examination of samples of blood taken 
from horses suspected of or exposed to this disease is found necessary. Comple- 
ment-fixation tests of 40 blood samples have been made this year. 

In addition to the above, 120 specimens have been examined taken from animals 
suspected of the following diseases: anthrax, 8; tuberculosis, 6; actinomycosis, 1; 
hemorrhagic septicemia, 9; blackleg, 1; infectious abortion, 90; carcinoma, 1; and 
miscellaneous, 4. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises 

Under the provisions ol Section 19, Chapter 129 of the General Laws, an order 
was issued by the Director on January 18, 1925, to every inspector of animals in the 
cities and towns of the Commonwealth calling for an inspection of all cattle, sheep 
and swine and of the premises where kept. 

This order called for the completion of the inspection by March 1, and for a report 
of the same to be promptly forwarded to the Division's office. The inspectors' 
reports came forward in most instances in good season and were duly examined and 
tabulated in minute detail. 

These reports first of all constitute a "census" of the cattle, sheep. and swine on 
28,601 farms or premises in the State where these species of animals are kept. From 
these reports the following interesting facts are gathered: — . 

The number of cattle of all kinds has decreased from the 1924 record of 219,042 
to 204,163 — a decrease of 14,879 head. 

The number of swine reported by local inspectors of animals in the Spring months 
of this year is 61,935. 

The number of sheep found on the farms of the State still declines. Last year 
10,706 were recorded by inspectors of animals, which number declined to 9,540 this 
year, a decrease of 1,166. 

Owing to the prevalence of contagious diseases in poultry inspectors were in- 
structed to inspect and report the condition and number of poultry found at time 
of inspection. While it is believed that this inspection was in no manner complete 
there were reported 1,459,888 poultry. 

In accordance with our annual custom, meetings of local town and city inspectors 
were called in November for conference with Division officials. 

The meetings were held in Greenfield, Pittsfield, Springfield, Worcester and 
Boston, and a fairly large number of inspectors attended. Matters of mutual 
interest to the local inspectors and the office of the Division were discussed, with 
satisfactory results in the way of clearing up many points of the service not well 
understood by the local inspectors. Bovine tuberculosis, its eradication by physical 
examination and by the application of the tuberculin test, was the principal subject 
of discussion — as usual — but the service of the inspector in the control of rabies 
was also one of the prominent subjects of interest. 

District veterinarians have made 188 visits to premises where unsanitary condi- 
tions were reported by local inspectors. 

Reports of Rendering Companies 

Section 154 of Chapter 111 of the General Laws requires rendering companies to 
report to this Division every animal received by them which is found to be infected 
with a contagious disease, and the information thus furnished is of value in bringing 
to the attention of the Division occasional cases of these diseases which otherwise 
would not be known. 

Seven reports covering 8 cases of contagious diseases were received from render- 
ing companies, 1 of which had not been otherwise recorded. 



14 P. D. 98 

Financial Statement 

Appropriation for the salary of the Director, chapter 211, Acts of 1925 $3,500 00 

Expended during the year for the salary of the Director . . . $3,500 00 
Appropriation for personal services of clerks and stenographers, 

chapter 211, Acts of 1925 $9,300 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers . . $9,121 58 
Unexpended balance . . . 178 42 

$9,300 00 



Appropriation for services, other than personal, includ- 
ing the annual report, traveling expenses of the 
Director, and office supplies and equipment, chap- 
ter 211, Acts of 1925 ....... $4,37000 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books and maps . 

Express and messenger service 

Postage 

Printing report . 

Other printing 

Telephone and telegrams ($647.78 less $41.42 Refunds) 

Stationery and office supplies 

Expenses of the Director 



Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance . 



$65 06 


259 


81 


711 


64 


59 


34 


806 


53 


606 


36 


1,253 04 


81 


06 


$3,842 84 


527 


16 



$4,370 00 



Appropriation for personal services of veterinarians and 
agents engaged in the work of extermination of 
contagious diseases among domestic animals, chap- 
ter 211, Acts of 1925 $43,180 00 



Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Services of regular agents $34,740 00 

Services of per diem agents .;.... 7,537 50 

Labor hired 124 00 

Total expenditure 

Unexpended balance 

Appropriation for the traveling expenses of veterina- 
rians and agents, chapter 211, Acts of 1925 . 

Transferred from Appropriation for Extraordinary Ex- 
penses . 

Total amount appropriated 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Traveling expenses of regular agents .... 
Traveling expenses of per diem agents .... 

Total expenditure ' . 

Unexpended balance . . . ... 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of horses 
killed during the present and previous years, travel, 
when allowed, of inspectors of animals, incidental 
expenses of killing and burial, quarantine and 
emergency services, and for laboratory and vet- 
erinary supplies and equipment, chapter 211, Acts 
of 1925 $5,650 00 



$42,401 50 
778 50 


$43,180 00 




$19,000 00 




2,505 01 






$21,505 01 


$18,079 10 
3,424 51 




$21,503 61 
1 40 


491 znz m 



P. D. 98 

Expended during the year for the following purposes 
6 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 
Supplies for veterinary inspectors . 

Laundry 

Antiseptics, biologies and disinfectants 
Thermometers, needles, syringes, etc. 
Ear-tags, punches, chains, etc. . 
Expenses of killing and burial . 
Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals 
Quarantine expenses .... 
Rent of halls for inspectors' meetings 
Sundries 

Total expenditure 
Unexpended balance .... 

Appropriation for reimbursement of owners of cattle 
killed as authorized by chapter 304, Acts of 1924, 
and chapter 129, General Laws, as amended by 
chapter 353, Acts of 1922, during present and 
previous years, chapter 211, Acts of 1925 . 



15 



oses : — 

ders . $280 00 


. . 197 52 


388 74 


207 13 


585 72 


3,101 83 


. . 117 00 


. . 546 67 


108 00 


. . 2 00 


48 00 


. '. $5,582 61 


67 39 



$5,650 00 



$200,000 00 



Expended during the year for the following : — 
6,282 head of cattle killed in 1923, 1924 and 1925 (chap- 
ter 353, Acts of 1922) $168,168 45 

709 head of cattle killed (physical cases) .... 18,748 20 

Total expenditure . . ... . . $186,91665 

Unexpended balance 13,083 35 



$200,000 00 



The average amount paid for condemned tuberculous cattle for the year is 
$23.28. 

Seventy-three claims for reimbursement for cattle condemned and killed as 
physical cases of tuberculosis during the year remain unsettled, these claims amount- 
ing to $1,025. 

Two hundred and fifty-eight unpaid claims covering 2,597 cattle, to which pro- 
visions of chapter 353, Acts of 1922, apply, remain unpaid, amounting to $68,895.34. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of hides and carcasses of 
condemned animals $10. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, Director. 



APPENDIX 

The following graphs show the work of the Division of Animal Industry in control 
of the principal contagious diseases of animals for a period of years. 



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